National Council for the Social Studies 38th House of Delegates Assembly

November 19-20, 1994 • Phoenix, Arizona


Call to Order by President Bob Stahl and Approval of Minutes

President Bob Stahl called the House to order and received a motion to accept minutes from the 37th House of Delegates. The minutes were approved as presented.


Adoption of Agenda

The agenda presented by Bob Stahl was moved, seconded, and adopted.


Credentials Committee

Lynette Erickson, Chair of the Credentials Committee, reported that the count for the House of Delegates was 226 registered delegates.


Implementation of the House of Delegates Committee Reorganization Process Plan for 1994-95

President Bob Stahl called on John Papadonis to address the House.

John Papadonis: In your delegate packets you received a hand-out called “House Participation—The Assignment of Operation Committee Members.” Last year the House voted to participate in the placement of NCSS members onto NCSS Operations Committees, and charged the Steering Committee with devising a strategy and plan for that. The Steering Committee has come up with what you have in your packets.

Essentially, the process broke down into two parts, the first part being how to place people onto Operations Committee this year, and then how to set a process in motion for subsequent years. The 1994 process involved the creation of an Ad Hoc Committee which is now called the Assignment Committee. The Steering Committee appointed one of its members, myself, to chair that committee and to review applications and nomination forms for placement of people onto Operations Committees for this year. Being the first year, there were a limited number of nominations submitted. The committee met on Friday morning and reviewed all of the applications and has placed candidates onto committees and I believe everybody has a list of those candidates here.

I will read them to you. There are thirteen committees: The Academic Freedom, Ethics and Equity Committee: Sandy Senior Dauer is being nominated by the Assignment Committee, the Ad Hoc Committee. Archives: Mark Previte from Pennsylvania. Assessment: Pat Guillory from Georgia and John Papadonis from Massachusetts. Awards Committee: Linda Bennett from Missouri. Conference Committee: Shelly Singer from Illinois and George Watson from Massachusetts. Curriculum Committee: Phyllis Henry from Illinois. Instruction Committee: Walter Hersher from Wisconsin and Ronnie Wattman from New York representing ATSS/UFT. International Activities: Keith Dauer from Connecticut and Karen Thompson from Massachusetts. There were no requests to join the Membership, Public Relations, Publications or Research Committees for this year. Teacher Education and Professional Development Committee: Kathleen Taylor from Florida and Jeff Winograd from New York, again representing ATSS/UFT. The Steering Committee via the Ad Hoc Assignment Committee presents those names for your consideration today.

In future years, the Steering Committee has requested that we create a new committee called the Assignment Committee which will be part of a Standing Committee of the House to which nine members will be elected this year. The first three members to serve, or the top three vote getters, will serve for three years. The second three vote getters will serve for two years. And the third three vote getters will serve for one year, thereby affecting a rotating election process similar to the Resolutions, Steering and Nominations Committee.

The description of the committee is as you see it. I’m not going to read through it with you. It’s fairly self-explanatory. The process for appointing members of NCSS to committees via the House next year will be similar to this year, except that the nomination packets will be due by June 30, 1995 to headquarters in Washington. At that point the Assignment Committee will meet prior to this conference and review all applications and recommend a slate of five candidates for each of the Operations Committees. From those five candidates the House will elect two to serve on the Operations Committee, whichever one is being voted on, two people to serve for three years.

That’s our participation in the process. A little bit later on in this agenda you will see that we will be considering these candidates as they’re stated here. But that’s the process that we have put into place for now.

Bob Stahl: Thank you, John, for your hard work and that of the committee.


Review of Nominations Process—

Call for Written Nominations to the House of Delegates Committee.

Jackie Abbott, Chair, Steering Committee: At this time we would like to solicit nominations for House of Delegates committees. Now I want to clarify that we’re talking about the Steering Committee for the House of Delegates, the Resolutions Committee, the Nominations Committee and the Assignment Committee. Not to confuse you with the operating committees. This body will be electing members to each committee in accordance with Article VI, Sections 1-5 and with the process John has just outlined for the Assignment Committee. This will become Section 6 in the House of Delegates Manual. If you wish to look at that, you’ll find it on page three. We will be electing two members to the Steering Committee for three-year terms; three members to the Resolutions Committee for two-year terms; and two members to the Nominations and Elections Committee, one for a three-year term and one for a two-year term. Again, later in the agenda, there will be a motion that will clarify the discrepancy between these terms on nominations and election.

For the Assignment Committee we will be electing nine people. Three of those people will have a three-year term; three a two-year term; and three a one-year term. The information that you received in your packet as you came in with the roll call of the House, that looks very much like this, also gives you that information that I’ve just provided you. There is a correction though. The Steering Committee on your materials says “three” and it should be “two.” Continuing, I would remind you that no affiliated delegation may have more than one representative on any one committee. Also, that no one from an affiliated delegation shall succeed a person from that delegation. And third, no affiliated delegation may have a representative on more than two committees for which elections are held. And if you’d like to reference this, you may check in Article X. You’ll find this on page eleven of the House of Delegates Manual.

The members of the Steering Committee, those of us with the gold sashes, will collect those nominations. And again, we have tried to color code for you to make it easy. The items that require action are in green. So you have a nomination form in your packet. The members of the Steering Committee will accept your written nominations for candidates for committee service. If you would pass them to the aisle, and I’m going to say to the outer aisle, we would appreciate that. I’m also going to ask you to please print clearly. We’d like to be able to spell people’s names correctly when we put them up on the chart. Formal nominations will occur later under Item XI on the agenda by the Roll Call of the States.

Bernie Cohen, New York: Point of information? In previous elections we only chose two from three of the committees. We’ve just added a fourth assignment here and you used the same regulations. At that time it was only three to chose from. Now, are we keeping the rules the same but changing the conditions? Aren’t we entitled to vote on whether there should be two instead of three from the four committees? Because before you had two out of three and now you’ve added a new Assignment Committee, but we just kept the same rule even though we have an addition here?

Jackie Abbott: Well we had to change it, whatever we did, and so if you feel that a vote is necessary we can go through that process at a later time.


The State of the Council Addresses—

President’s Message and Introduction of the National Council for the Social Studies Board.

Bob Stahl: We’d like to introduce the National Council Board, if you would please stand. Michael Hartoonian, president-elect; Pat Nickell, vice president; Denny Schillings, immediate past president; Charlotte Anderson, second immediate past president; Members of the Board: Tom McGowan, Joe Gotchy, Cecelia Gross, Jim Elliot, John Solberg, Janet Adams, Nannette McGee, Barbara Jackson, Shirley Mead-Mezzetta, Jeff Passe, Tracy Dussia, and Richard Moulden.

In terms of the Presidential Message, you have a copy of that in your materials. I would like to make a couple of corrections on that if you will. In the second paragraph under Annual Conference Update, “Our Expanded Features,” instead of “930 sessions” it should read “900.” In the third paragraph, we have officially now 290 full-size exhibits and we have 27 smaller cultural exhibits. Pre-registration is a little over 3,100 pre-registered. In the bottom of the first paragraph at the bottom of that page, where it says, “we are in a firm,” it should read “we are rapidly moving toward a firm black, not red, financial position.”

At this point in time, I think it’s important that you know that the progress of NCSS in the last two years in terms of working as a Board to move toward that firm financial situation has been tremendous. We are continuing to work with fluctuating membership and Martharose will give you more information on that shortly. One of our concerns has to be that we have to find ways of increasing membership in this organization with several factors that have to be considered. One is that the age of our members is increasing the number of retirees, not only per year but over the next few years. We are working hard to increase our number of student members so that hopefully they will continue and join and become full-time members once they leave the university.

We are also having some concerns in terms of membership as we have worked with publications in the last two years. We know that for a while publications were not coming out on a regular basis. We have now corrected that. We now have six issues of The Social Studies Professional a year. If you’ve seen Social Education in the last eleven months, you’ve seen an entirely new face for Social Education. Social Studies and the Young Learner is increasing its subscriptions, and we’re also getting more elementary teachers who are becoming members.

We have to be concerned with individuals who are not renewing and as you work out in the field and in schools we need to find ways by which we can find out why members are not renewing so that we can keep them. If you look at our total membership at this point in time, if you include paid members, institutional members and subscribers to Social Education as our membership total, we are just over 20,000. What we have to do is to work on ways by which we can continue to increase that.

When I was working in some of the states and visiting them, I found that many of them are really promoting NCSS and promoting joint membership. And we need to applaud that effort and ask you if you would continue to do that. Maybe in some cases, we can encourage you and invite you to try a little bit harder to encourage those joint members.

This particular conference, right now, will I think be the second largest in NCSS history if the on-site registration continues. As I look at where we were last year and where we hope to be heading next year, we hope to continue to expand our program and make it something which is inviting to social studies teachers so that they will want to come to our conference and also partake in other kinds of activities related to promoting the Council at the national level.

At this particular point in time I would like to introduce Martharose Laffey, Executive Director, who will provide her report to you. Before we do that let me, first of all, stop and open the floor up for questions to me should you have questions related to my report or any other thing related to the Presidential office or NCSS. This is an invitation, not a threat.

All right, we’ve provided sufficient wait time, so we are in good shape. Now I would like to honor our Executive Director, Martharose Laffey, who will provide her message and financial report to the House of Delegates. After her report we will open the floor for ten minutes of questions to Martharose.

Martharose Laffey: Thank you Bob. Good evening everyone. You have my staff report in your materials, and what I’d like to do tonight is just highlight some of the things in that report for you. Let me begin by saying that I think the past year has been a very positive turning point for NCSS. During the past year we published Expectations of Excellence, our curriculum standards for the social studies, which brought to fruition two years of very hard work by our Standards Task Force and by many of our members, including many of yourselves, reviewing the various drafts, suggesting changes and revisions. That document is now out and I think is being very well received.

In addition, our financial situation has improved substantially. Although our membership is still declining, it is not declining at as rapid a rate as it has in the past few years, and we think that it may be reaching a point where it is stabilizing. But just to emphasize what Bob said, we need to continue to try to increase our membership and in particular to bring the young social studies teachers who are out there into NCSS. So I would reiterate his message to please try and help us in any way that you can with regard to that.

Bob also mentioned that our conference is one of the best attended in recent years, and we are very pleased to be here in Phoenix. I think that I’m certainly enjoying the experience and I hope that all of you are too.

To just acquaint you with several new staff members who have joined NCSS. In March Tim Daly became my Executive Assistant and he replaced Emma Davis. I’m sure many of you knew Emma. She gave many years of faithful service to the Council and we were very sorry to see her leave. She left for perhaps better professional opportunities and Tim has replaced her and we are very happy to have Tim Daly on board.

Michael Simpson was hired as our Director of Publications in July after an extensive national search. Michael, as well as Terri Ackerman who joined the staff shortly thereafter as our Managing Editor, are both here at this meeting, and I hope that you will take the opportunity to go up and introduce yourself and get to know them if you have not already done so. Because of Michael and Terri’s expertise our publications are back on schedule. I think that we’re seeing major improvements in Social Education and in the format of our bulletins. And I’m sure that that improvement is going to continue. I think publications are the public persona of NCSS that we put out to the world and I think it’s very important that they continue to improve and be attractive to our members so that we will attract more members into NCSS.

We also have a new Director of Finance. Tim McGettigan replaced Neil Beskin, our former Director of Finance, early in the fall. He was selected from a very large pool of candidates who were screened initially for NCSS by our outside auditing firm, and they screened many candidates. I think we had 150 applications for this particular position. They came up with a pool of finalists that was very difficult to select from. I was in the very fortunate position of having to choose from several very qualified people. Tim has joined our staff and he is here at the meeting so please introduce yourself if you have an opportunity to meet him. You have a listing of our current headquarters staff in your materials.

To discuss our financial situation, it continues to improve. As a matter of fact it has improved far more than we had anticipated it improving, and we are very very pleased. For the 1993-94 fiscal year, we had revenues in excess of expenditures of over $200,000. For fiscal year 92-93 and 93-94, for those two fiscal years, we have reduced our deficit by over 45%. We had originally thought it would take between three to five years to retire our deficit. We are ahead of schedule on retiring the deficit, and we are very, very pleased about that. I should caution, however, that we need to continue to exercise fiscal restraint. We still have a large deficit remaining of over $400,000, so that we can be in a position of having all of our assets equalling all of our liabilities from an accounting perspective. What that means, essentially, is if we were to close up shop tomorrow, we’d need to have enough money in the bank to pay all of our members back for their membership dues. When we’ve reached that point, we will be in very sound fiscal condition and any revenues that we bring in above that amount can then be used for new programming, and the expansion of programming and services to our members. So, hopefully, with the success of this meeting, if we can bring our membership up, and look forward to a successful meeting in Chicago next year, we will be realizing our objective of completely eliminating our deficit ahead of schedule. So I’m very happy to report that to you.

I might mention that we would normally provide you with a detailed financial report for the 93-94 fiscal year. Our outside auditors have not yet completed their audit so we were not able to provide you with that report. We have a draft audit report that you are very welcome to look at. I will leave a copy with Jackie, and we will also keep a copy in the headquarters office. We cannot give you copies of the report because, since the audit has not been completed, our auditor has given us strict instructions that we cannot circulate copies of the draft audit. We must keep all of those copies with us because they are not yet finalized. But you’re certainly welcome to look at the information, and should you have any questions you can contact either myself or Bob or our auditor to get further information. And, of course, I’ll be happy to answer your questions here as well.

As I mentioned, our national standards document has been completed. We printed 25,000 copies of the standards and we got very good press coverage at a press conference that we held to announce their release. We are in the process now of mailing copies to key legislators and members of the education community and press.

We understand that our standards are being used in the development of state curriculum frameworks, and members have indicated that many of the local districts in their states are using the standards as well. If that percentage holds true across the country for those that did not respond, it looks like more than half of the states are using our standards. So I’m very pleased to see that they appear to be useful and we’ve been getting a very positive response to them.

In terms of Council Services, I just want to highlight that we are seeking to improve our professional development program. We normally hold a number of workshops in the summer as well as a leadership institute. We are looking at what other organizations of our type do with those kinds of programs and we’re going to be improving our professional development programs to make them more attractive to our members. Among some of the things we’re looking at is expanding the number of programs that we do and offering some during the course of the school year.

Bob has talked to you about the success of this meeting and I can tell you, he had mentioned that we had more than 3,000 pre-registered for the meeting in addition to the on-site registrations that we’ve gotten at the meeting, I believe we’re now well over 4,000 and Peter Stavros, the Director of Meetings, is here and can perhaps give us more specific information. I don’t think we even know ourselves what the final count is at this point but it’s very, very positive.

I would also mention that our international conference in Nairobi, which we held at the end of June, was very successful. We had over 400 participants from more than 28 countries in attendance at the meeting, and it was a very successful meeting for NCSS. I think it has helped us reach out to social studies educators in other countries, and has helped our prestige as the professional organization representing social studies.

I think that I will just end briefly with a discussion of government relations. I have only ten minutes and Jackie is going to give me the hook in a couple of minutes, I know. I’ve got two minutes. Basically, as you well know, there were two major pieces of federal legislation affecting education that were passed last year: the Goals 2000 Education America Act and the Improving America School Act, otherwise known as The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Both of those programs provided funding for professional development for social studies professionals and I would urge you to be sure that you are involved and your state councils are involved in making sure that social studies is represented in the planning committees that are submitting planning grants to the Federal Department of Education, and that you are very aggressive about getting some of those funds for professional development.

The other thing I might mention is, in light of the elections last week—it seems like it was even longer—things look fairly bleak for education. I think that some of the things we may be seeing as a result of the Republican control of the Congress are perhaps things like an effort to meld education programs into block grants. And, typically when that happens, specific programs are phased out over time, and funding overall for education drops. We had a very disturbing situation this past year where we saw both houses of Congress submitting budgets for education that were less than what the President requested, and final appropriations ending up as being less than what was requested by the administration. I think we can see that trend continuing. And I also think that we may well see a de-emphasis on national standards. Conservative republicans may make the claim that standards are an attempt to make incursions on local control of education and there may be a turning away from standards or an equation of standards-based education with outcomes-based education. So I think we’re in for some very rough sledding in education both funding-wise and program-wise over the next several years.

Thank you, and I’ll be glad to take any questions.

Bob Stahl: We have a ten-minute period for questions for Martharose Laffey, Executive Director, in reference to her report.

Martharose Laffey: And/or for Bob as our President.

Kent Minor, Ohio: In part you’ve answered my question and maybe this is more of a helpful suggestion. I’m disturbed about the decline in membership. I don’t know how everyone else feels but from a few years ago this is incredible. We just had a meeting of professional societies in our state from all across mathematics, the arts, etc. and I thought we were doing very well with OCSS and we are, I don’t know, the fourth or fifth largest council in NCSS. When every other society in Ohio gave its numbers—both membership and attendees at their conferences—they were so much bigger than we were getting in social studies. So we’ve got a common problem, state and national.

You said you were beginning conversations with other professional societies to figure out some of the professional development strategies that they’re doing. We may, and this is just a suggestion that I hope is helpful, may we also try to inquire what they are doing to attract and keep members so that we can be as successful as them? I know this triggered an idea in my mind to try to do this for Ohio, and maybe we ought to try to do this across the nation. It boggles my mind: of all the organizations, social studies teachers should be the most involved, it seems to me. And the fact that there are so many of them out there that are not members means that we’ve got to find some strategies, and maybe some of our other professional organizations can give us some help. What they’re doing might be helpful to us.

Martharose Laffey: I think that’s a very good suggestion, and we are going to be looking at that, in addition to looking at their professional development programs. We’re also going to be looking at how they get members, what kinds of membership dues they charge. We’re going to be looking at all of that in the hope that it will shed some light on our own situation. Very good suggestion.

Another speaker: I just want to ask Martharose about the International Conference in Nairobi. I went and I had a ball. I heard a rumor then that we’re going to Australia in 1997. What’s going on in that? Are we going to Australia in 1997? Whoever wants to handle that one?

Bob Stahl: Right now, the Conference Committee is going to consider that. The International Activities Committee has recommended that we go to Australia. The Conference Committee has got to hear that report and report back to the Board of Directors. Right now our inclination is that if that comes forth, knowing the work of the international assembly, there’s a strong orientation that we’d probably go to Australia. We cannot confirm that officially because the Board has got to get the recommendation and pass its official approval. Specifically, the suggested location is going to be Sydney, the University of Sydney campus, and we will give new information as soon as we know.

Leo Radakovich, Michigan: A question for Martharose. You mentioned the leadership seminar and what we would like to have, if possible, is just as early a notification as to the actual date of that as possible, and also some sort of expectations that you have of numbers in advance, so we can spend a few weeks trying to prepare ourselves before we come.

Martharose Laffey: Yes, in looking at the evaluations from the last leadership institute, we saw that people wanted more time in advance of the meeting to prepare to meet, for example, with their congressional delegates, and more information, and we’re going to do that. We are also hoping that we can expand the leadership institute this year to include more members from our state councils. We are looking at both increasing the amount of support that we give to state councils to send people, and we are looking at expanding the time of the program so that people can have more time to socialize and interact with the people from other states, their colleagues from other states. This was expressed on the evaluation forms as something that people really wanted. So we are looking at making improvements in the leadership institute as well.

I’d just like to take the few remaining minutes to acknowledge my excellent staff, both the staff who are here at the meeting and those who are back at the office. I’m just going to call them out by names. Some of them are here in the room. Others are out fulfilling their duties for the rest of the conference. First of all, I’ll introduce Susan Griffin, who I know is here in the room standing at the back of the room. You all know Susan. Susan is the Director of Membership Marketing and Council Services. She also has responsibility for your activities here in the House. She just does a fabulous job and has been a great support to me over the last year. She is assisted in her work by Mildred “Peaches” McBee, who is here at the meeting but I don’t think here in the room with us. I want to acknowledge Susan. I also want to acknowledge Peter Stavros, our Director of Meetings and Advertising. Peter is responsible overall for this meeting from our staff perspective and he, I think, has just done a wonderful job. Peter is assisted by Annette Campbell and I’m sure many of you have met Annette and talked with her, so I want to acknowledge Peter and his great contribution. We’ll clap for them even if they’re not here. I mentioned Michael Simpson, our New Director of Publications. I can tell you that in addition to being very competent in the publications area, Michael is a joy to work with and I’m sure that you are all going to find that as time goes by. And I hope that many of you will consider contributing to Social Education in the coming year. Michael is going to be out soliciting your ideas and may have already given you a questionnaire that we’re distributing at this meeting to find out what the needs of our members are and what their preferences are with regard to publications. In addition to Michael, we have Terri Ackerman, who is our Managing Editor, and then Gene Cowan, who is our Art Director, and Paul Wolski our Graphic Designer. They are all here at the meeting so I would urge you to speak with them. The new look of Social Education is due to our great graphics department and I wish you would express your appreciation to them during the course of the meeting. We also have Cassandra Roberts on our staff. She is our Director of Membership Processing. She is here at the meeting. You probably could see her either in registration or the arena. She’s the one responsible for all the processing of our members. She works very, very, hard and her assistant in that is Marcia Gerran. Marcia is not here at the meeting but I’m sure many of you have had an opportunity to talk with her over the phone at NCSS headquarters. So I’d like to give them a round of applause as well. And we have Tim McGettigan, our Director of Finance, whom I mentioned just recently joined the staff. Tim is here managing all the money here on site and has been very busy. So if you have a chance to say hello to Tim, please do. Tim is assisted by Margaret Black. Margaret is back in the office with Marcia holding down the fort while we’re away. Margaret is also, in addition to our Accounting Assistant, our Receptionist. So I’d like to give them a hand. I would be remiss if I did not mention Rose-Kathryn Young Chaisson. Rose is our Information Assistant and is also the person responsible for our Awards program. Those of you who participated in our Awards luncheon today know what a wonderful time we had, know what a very uplifting experience it was seeing all of those superb social studies professionals receiving recognition. Rose is responsible for that, so I want to give Rose a hand. And now I know it’s really time for me to get off so I will say good-bye. I hope I have not forgotten anyone, I don’t think I have.

Bob Stahl: Thank you Martharose. Before we go to the next item we just want to remind you for your nomination forms to be passed to the side aisles at this particular point. So if you will, please take your nomination forms and pass those to the side aisles.

At this particular point on the agenda is the Candidates Forum. I would like to introduce to you Tedd Levy, Chair of the NCSS Nominations and Elections Committee. Tedd.


Candidates Forum

Tedd Levy, Chair of the Nominations and Elections Committee began by urging members to consider themselves as potential candidates or encourage colleagues to run for the NCSS Board of Directors. He explained the rules for the forum and introduced the candidates for office: For vice president, James Barth from Indiana. For vice president, Richard Diem from Texas. Elementary/early childhood: Dorothy Dobson, Utah; Terry Kuseske, Michigan. For the middle level: Jeanette Groth, Kentucky; Sandra Haftel, New Jersey. High school: Adrian Davis, Michigan; Joann Galvan, Texas; Steven Johnson, Texas; Eric LaDue, Arizona. College and University: Ronald Banasak, Alabama; James Leming, Illinois. Other professional: Peggy Altoff, Maryland and Raymond Wicks, Missouri.

Pat Nickell, currently Vice-President, ran unopposed for President-Elect.

All candidates provided statements regarding the role they thought NCSS should play in leading and supporting the profession. Candidates received questions from the audience.


Change in Terms on Nominations and Elections Committees

Jackie Abbott: The next motion should move very quickly. We have a situation on Nominations and Election Committee where there’s an imbalance between the House of Delegates candidates and the Board of Directors President’s appointees. So therefore, we need a motion that will state that one of the candidates that we elect today will serve a two-year term and the other person serve a three-year term. I would recognize Rosalie Romano to make that motion.

Rosalie Romano, Washington: I move that the House of Delegates elect one delegate to serve a three-year term and one delegate to serve a two-year term on the Nominations and Elections Committee. Thereafter, the House of Delegates will elect two delegates each for a three-year term. Thank you.

Bob Stahl: We have a motion. Is there a second to the motion? Discussion?

Another speaker: [not audible on tape]

Bob Stahl: That would have to be an amendment to the motion as opposed to a friendly motion. Okay. Will the person who made the motion accept that change? So accepted. Any further discussion? All in favor of the motion signify by saying Aye. Opposed? Motion passes.


Motion on Nominations for Standing Commmittees

Prior to the nomination process, a resolution was proposed by the New York Council for the Social Studies:

WHEREAS the House of Delegates have been empowered to elect members for four House of Delegates standing committees instead of three by adding the Assignments Committee,

RESOLVED that each state be allowed to nominate candidates for no more than three of the House of Delegates standing committees instead of two in a given year.

The resolution failed after a short discussion.


Nominations for House Committees

Steering Committee nominees were: Carol Marquis, California; and Fred Isele, Indiana.

Assignment Committee nominees were: Steve Armstrong, Connecticut; Sherry Field, Georgia; Jackie O’Neill, Maryland; John Papadonis, Massachusetts; Ken Mareski, Michigan; Carol Ann Harris, New Jersey; and John Larner, Pennsylvania.

Nominations Committee nominees were: Bob Lombard, Illinois; and Sherrelyn Smith, Kansas.


Recognition of Gold and Silver Award Star Councils

Susan Griffin, NCSS Director of Council Services and Membership Marketing: Good morning everyone. We wouldn’t be anywhere without the hard work of our state and local councils. So I think it’s a grand idea to recognize their hard work. Each council is eligible to apply to qualify for a Gold or Silver Star Council, and the qualifications for that are provided to all the state council presidents during the affiliation process. So I just hope that you join me in recognizing this integral part of National Council for the Social Studies.

Okay, the Silver Star Alaska Council for the Social Studies. Could you come up and get your certificate when I call your name? Arizona Council for the Social Studies. California Council for the Social Studies. Georgia Council for the Social Studies. Indiana Council for the Social Studies. Maryland Council for the Social Studies. Michigan Council for the Social Studies. Missouri Council for the Social Studies. New Hampshire Council for the Social Studies. They really did a great job this year increasing their membership and they almost qualified for a Gold Star and I expect to see them next year in a Gold. Congratulations. ATSS/UFT, a local council for New York. Another local council in New York, Long Island Council for the Social Studies. Niagara Frontier Council for the Social Studies. Oklahoma Council for the Social Studies is another Silver Star winner. Oregon Council for the Social Studies. From the great state of Texas, the Cypress Fairbanks Council for the Social Studies. What I’d like to call the other Washington, Washington Council for the Social Studies.

Now for the Gold Star Councils. We made it even harder for councils to be a Gold Star. One of the qualifications was that you had to get everything in on time. But there are also a lot of other things. They have to be very active. They have to recruit members in a very deliberate way, and so I want to make sure that everybody recognizes that this is not an easy thing to do. The Illinois Council for the Social Studies, Gold Star. It’s their second year in a row. Minnesota Council for the Social Studies. They hosted a wonderful Great Lakes Regional. What a surprise, New York Council for the Social Studies. Congratulations. Our host last year, Tennessee Council for the Social Studies. Texas Council for the Social Studies. Good for you Karen. Is there anyone here from Oklahoma? Thanks a lot and congratulations. I expect more Gold next year.


Recognition of Each One, Reach One

Gayle Thieman, Membership Committee: Good morning. On behalf of the Membership Committee, of which I’m a member and a past chair, I’d like to welcome you. We’re going to recognize 63 people this morning because they’ve accepted the challenge offered by the 1993 House of Delegates and reached out to invite a colleague to join NCSS. We’re at a critical juncture as an organization. For the third year in a row, we’re experiencing a decline in membership. At the same time we have rising expectations for the organization. National Standards and Assessments have been developed for social studies and we need to have a powerful inclusive voice that represents educators at all levels through the network that NCSS provides.

If NCSS is going to continue to lead the social studies profession we will need to attract the newest members, student teachers and beginning teachers, as well as those from underrepresented groups. The Membership Committee developed the Each One, Reach One campaign because we believe the most effective way to increase and diversify our membership is through individual sponsorship. People join an organization because they feel wanted and because they believe mentorship will benefit them and help them to grow professionally. You are the best people to explain those benefits and to let your colleagues know how you feel that it is essential for them to join NCSS. The Each One, Reach One campaign officially began in 1993. Last year we recognized 14 people at the House of Delegates. This year, thanks to your efforts and those of the NCSS staff, most especially Susan Griffin, we will be recognizing 63 people who reached out and sponsored new members. If you are not on this list but you have sponsored someone, let us know the name of the person you sponsored and we will send you a certificate. Additionally, this year all the persons who sponsored a new member will be eligible for a drawing March 15th to receive two free tickets to fly anywhere in the continental United States, and one of the brand new members will receive a free airline ticket to attend next year’s NCSS. So there are lots and lots of you out there who aren’t on this list yet and you have until March 15 to recruit someone, to invite them to join and be part of that drawing.

I’d like you to hold your applause and recognition until you’ve heard all the names this morning. We will be sending these certificates out. These are the sponsors that we know of thus far: Fred Risinger, Mike Solliday, James Larkin, Elizabeth Simpson, Cheryl Oenbik, Elizabeth Carlson, Dan Maley, Hillary Rosenthal, John Moore, Mary Bristol, Rachel Lau, Jay Zola, Bob Stahl, Robert Toepper, Dr. William Peters, Jeanne Garchek, Cleo Jordan, Dr. Ronald VanSickle, Patricia Dye, Jay Gavitt, Betty Dean, Kathryn Lawhorn, Mark Stewart, Dr. Jan Tucker, Peter Hovnier, Edith Slaton, Gloria Contreras, Rosalind Hammond, Barbara In Den Bosch, Jeff Krieg, Lynda Hatch, Virginia Propp, Ann Orury, John Hutson, Linda Fussell, Shirley Alexander, Vickie Karant, JoAnn Hohenbrink, Phillip Van Fossen, Deborah Doyle, John Levy, Lisa Mitchell, Jay Monson, Rex Shepard, Blythe Hinitz, Peggy Altoff, Dr. Sherrie Surbaugh, Havre deGrace, Thomas Gray, John Litcher, Hank Poehling, David Robers, Dr. David Pierfy, Ann Milkovich, Dr. Ken Carlson, Andra Makler, Joe O’Brien, Bonita Jorkasky, Mike Kelly, Joe Gotchy.

As I said there are a lot more of you out there who’ve recruited someone and you need to let us know who you’ve sponsored. We recognize that there are obstacles whenever we try to create change. There are lots of excuses. Some people get side-tracked and never make it. Others, the ones we admire like these 63 people, got the job done anyway. They have the determination.

In closing, we’d like you to make sure that you have a new membership application with you before you leave this conference. They are available at the booth. When you go home, make sure that you invite someone to join. We will be continuing the Each One, Reach One campaign all this year and at next year’s House of Delegates we’d like to recognize every single one of you. Please, please participate in the Each One, Reach One campaign.

You know, I forgot one of the most important names. All of those sponsors recruited at least one new member to NCSS but there was one person, I was going to recognize at the end, who sponsored 27 new members to NCSS—27 students. And that person is Lynn Burlbock.


At this point, the House rules were suspended to allow a presentation by a Phoenix Civic Center official of the reasons for the arrest of an exhibitor who had passed out protest leaflets during the Marine Corps Band performance on November 18. Questions and discussion ensued, ending in a return to the order of the day.


Bob Stahl: We are now back to the order of the day. At this particular point in time, Jackie Abbott and the Election of House of Delegates Committees.

Jackie Abbott: Thank you, Mr. Chair. You have, I am assuming, you have received the list of the candidates for our House of Delegates standing committees. Is that correct? Have you indeed received a Scantron ballot? All right, at this time I’m asking the Credentials Committee to distribute those, and the directions for you are as follows. I’ll await the House so that you can hear the directions. Please mark the appropriate number in column A on the Scantron tally sheets. Could I have quiet in the House? Thank you. I’ll repeat the directions. Mark the appropriate number in column A on the Scantron sheet that you are receiving. Please mark it with a number 2 pencil that’s available for you and mark only in the A column. You will select the candidates of your choice. You are going to vote for two for the Steering Committee, three for the Resolutions Committee, two for Nominations Committee and nine for the Assignment Committee. However, there are only eight names. When you have completed your vote please pass your marked Scantron sheets to the side aisle. Members of the Credentials Committee will collect your ballots as completed. Thank you.

If you have not received a ballot, if you would raise your hand we’ll take care of that.

I’ve been informed that there is still some confusion about how many people you vote for. Again for the Steering Committee, please vote for two. For the Resolutions Committee please vote for three. For the Nominations and Elections Committee please vote for two. And for the Assignment Committee, we need nine candidates but you have only eight names so you will vote for eight or as many as you choose.

Bob Stahl: The ballots have been picked up. Yes.

Rick Borries, Indiana: As a simple matter of policy here, or maybe a suggestion. We have really one contested race and all of us have spent a lot of time and energy now that we’re going to compile these votes, and we don’t have enough people on the Assignment Committee. So I guess I’d just like to suggest that since unfortunately we’re going to have a loser in one Resolutions Committee slot, that whoever that person might be or the person who comes in last if you would contact that person to see if he or she would want to serve on the Assignment Committee because we’re one short there.


Presentation and Action on Resolutions

Paul Robinson, Chair of the Resolutions Committee, introduced members of the committee: Eric Luce, Mississippi; Fred Clark, Indiana; Len Piekarski, Missouri; and Linda Baker Trevorrow, Minnesota.


94-01 RESOLUTION FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AMONG MEMBERS submitted by the Connecticut Council for the Social Studies

WHEREAS the overwhelming majority of members in NCSS are K-12 classroom teachers, and

WHEREAS classroom teachers are an under-represented category in NCSS, its committees and positions of responsibility, and

WHEREAS the results of recent changes in NCSS organizational structure will further limit involvement by classroom teachers, particularly on committees,

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that it shall be the policy of NCSS to provide all members, without regard to their membership in associated groups, with an equal opportunity to serve on committees and in other ways render service to the organization,

AND FURTHER that the House of Delegates requests that the Board of Directors take appropriate action to implement this resolution with all deliberate speed.

(Nothing in this resolution shall be interpreted to limit efforts to increase the involvement of under-represented groups nor restrict benefits provided by associated groups for their members.)

Clarification of the resolution was requested and provided, and support was offered.



94-02 RESOLUTION TO SCHEDULE NCSS COMMITTEE MEETINGS ON FRIDAY submitted by the Missouri Council for the Social Studies

WHEREAS the NCSS annual meeting is held from Friday through Monday, and

WHEREAS the NCSS is having difficulty finding teachers to serve on NCSS committees, and

WHEREAS most of these classroom teachers are not able to get more than two days off or reimbursement for the annual meeting from their district, and

WHEREAS teachers must pay most of their annual meeting expenses,

WHEREAS a Thursday NCSS committee commitment would mean teachers would have to use one of their two annual meeting days for a committee meeting,

THEREFORE, the Missouri Council for the Social Studies resolves that NCSS committee meetings be held on Friday rather than Thursday afternoon.



94-03 RESOLUTION TO CREATE AN EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE AWARD submitted by the Academic Freedom, Ethics and Equity Committee of NCSS

WHEREAS equity and social justice are areas of vital concern to NCSS, and

WHEREAS there are educators who have demonstrated leadership to advance these ideals, and

WHEREAS increased visibility should be provided for such issues and ideals,

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the efforts of educators who promote equity and social justice in their educational work in exemplary fashion deserve recognition and respect,

AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS establish an annual award for an educator whose work upholds the ideals of equity and social justice in an exemplary manner.

Questions about cost were entertained.



94-04 RESOLUTION CONCERNING REDUCTION IN CLASS SIZE submitted by the Virginia Council for the Social Studies

WHEREAS the overwhelming majority of members in NCSS are K-12 classroom teachers, and

WHEREAS smaller class sizes in social studies classrooms could enhance student-teacher interaction and individualized instruction, and assessments could be strengthened, and writing and higher level thinking skills could be incorporated on a more frequent basis,

BE IT RESOLVED that NCSS support a reduction in class size of all social studies classes to no more than twenty-five students, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the House of Delegates encourage the Board of Directors to take appropriate action in implementing this resolution.

Discussion followed for and against; an amendment was offered and was defeated.




WHEREAS the continuation in law of safeguards for intellectual/academic freedom is of paramount importance for the future of education and the public schools of the United States of America, and

WHEREAS the legislature of the state of New Jersey is currently considering Bills S-627 and A-625, which, if passed, will eliminate existing tenure protections for all school administrators, replacing such protections with renewable three-year contracts, and

WHEREAS the abolition of existing tenure laws in the state of New Jersey for school administrators raises serious concerns about the maintenance of intellectual academic freedom, the teaching of controversial topics and the existence of free and open debate and dissent in the public schools, and

RECOGNIZING the leadership role which NCSS has taken in the defense of intellectual academic freedom, most recently reaffirmed in 1991 by the awarding of the NCSS Academic Freedom Awards to retired Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., a distinguished New Jerseyan,

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the House of Delegates request that the Board of Directors of NCSS, in consultation with the NCSS Executive Director, author letters to the speakers of the New Jersey Senate and Assembly raising serious concerns about the effects of the passage of Bills S-627 (New Jersey Senate) and A-625 (New Jersey Assembly) on intellectual academic freedom in the schools of New Jersey. Such letters should be written and mailed to the speakers of the New Jersey Senate and Assembly no later than December 9, 1994.

Some discussion followed.



94-06 RESOLUTION CONCERNING PROPOSITION 187, submitted by Wayne Ross, Perry Marker, Stephen Fleury, and Andra Makler

WHEREAS National Council for the Social Studies is an organization devoted to the study and advancement of social education in a democratic society, and

WHEREAS the citizens of California have endorsed the restriction of access to education for children through the passage of Proposition 187,

BE IT RESOLVED that NCSS make known its firm opposition to any actions that restrict access to schooling for children, which are in violation of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and related international human rights instruments, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS refrain from holding meetings and conferences in California from this date on until Proposition 187 is repealed or nullified, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS appeal to other professional education organizations to state their opposition to Proposition 187 and to refrain from holding meetings in California until Proposition 187 is repealed or nullified.

After a discussion, the resolution was tabled, and later defeated. A substitute resolution was later passed. For the text of the resolution and later discussion, see p. 237 below.


94-07 RESOLUTION COMMENDING BOB STAHL submitted by the House of Delegates Resolutions Committee

WHEREAS Bob Stahl has provided the National Council for the Social Studies with outstanding leadership as President, and

WHEREAS Bob Stahl has served as an able spokesperson and advocate for the National Council and has worked to foster its goals, and

WHEREAS Bob Stahl has served the social studies profession and the National Council for the Social Studies with scholarship and sincere commitment in his office as President, and

WHEREAS Bob Stahl exemplifies social studies professionalism at its highest level,

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that Bob Stahl receive the sincere appreciation of the House of Delegates for his devoted dedication to the National Council for the Social Studies and to the profession itself.




WHEREAS Martharose Laffey and the NCSS staff are an important part of the National Council for the Social Studies, and

WHEREAS NCSS has achieved many of its goals during the past year through the efforts of these people;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the House of Delegates of the National Council for the Social Studies extend its appreciation and thanks to Martharose Laffey and the entire staff of NCSS for their service to social studies education.




WHEREAS Lynn Page Whittaker served the National Council for the Social Studies in the position of Interim Director of Publications, ably editing Social Education and Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies; maintaining the NCSS publications program during a time of transition,

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that NCSS extend to Lynn our sincere thanks and appreciation.




WHEREAS the Local Arrangements Committee and the Program Planning Committee for the 74th Annual Meeting have been well organized and highly successful, and

WHEREAS the Local Arrangements Committee and the Program Planning Committee have done a superb job that has required long hours,

BE IT RESOLVED that the House of Delegates express its appreciation for jobs well done.




WHEREAS the Nominations, Credentials, Resolutions and Assignment Committees have significantly contributed to the productive and proper operations of the House of Delegates, and

WHEREAS each committee member has assumed the duties and responsibilities of committee membership,

BE IT RESOLVED that National Council for the Social Studies House of Delegates extend its appreciation for the outstanding service rendered by these committee members.



94-12 RESOLUTION COMMENDING THE STEERING COMMITTEE submitted by the House of Delegates Resolutions Committee

WHEREAS the Steering Committee has done an excellent job of preparing the business of this House of Delegates meeting, and

WHEREAS the House of Delegates Steering Committee has provided guidance for NCSS,

BE IT RESOLVED that the House of Delegates express its appreciation for a job well done to all of the committee members.



Substitute Resolution for 1994-06

Bob Stahl: Now, if you will, let me help to expedite what I see coming on. In order to have your resolution considered, it takes a three-fourths vote by this House. So it has to be moved, seconded in a three-fourths vote. What I suggest is we do that. We will discuss it at that point in time. We will have a 10-minute discussion. If we need to, we will then vote to extend the discussion in ten minute blocks. And at that particular point in time, we will finally make a decision and then we will come back to take the other resolution off the table and vote on that if there’s a motion to do so. So at this particular point in time, if you wish to make a motion it has to be seconded and then, at that point in time, we have to decide if there’s a three-fourths majority in order to consider it any further.

Another speaker: Mr. President, California Council would like to submit the following resolution to the House of Delegates for approval.

WHEREAS the citizens of California have recently approved the initiative Proposition 187, which contains provisions which are unconstitutional in nature, including the denial of access to public education for children of illegal immigrants, and

WHEREAS Proposition 187 will run its course through the accepted process, namely the state and federal court system, and

WHEREAS the National Council for the Social Studies is an organization devoted to the study and advancement of social education in a democratic society, and

WHEREAS the purpose of NCSS includes promoting the social studies to the best advantage of all students in the classroom and to hold public discussions and programs, including its annual conference, and

WHEREAS the 1998 NCSS annual conference is currently scheduled for Anaheim, California,

BE IT RESOLVED that the NCSS reaffirm its commitment to educating its members and students on both historical and current event issues, on human rights and violations and attacks on human rights by devoting the equivalent of two issues of Social Education, The Social Studies Professional, Social Studies and the Young Learner to these issues, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS seize the opportunity to use the Anaheim conference in 1998 to educate the public, hold public forums, vital issues sessions, and to publicize how the social studies classroom provides the best forum for students to come to an informed understanding of vital issues by strongly recommending to the program planning committee of the Anaheim convention to adopt a central conference theme which addresses the issues of human and civil rights.


Bob Stahl: The question is on the adoption of this particular resolution as just read. Will there be a second? Now at this particular point in time we must have a three-fourths vote of the House in order to continue any further discussion so let’s see if we can vote. All in favor of continuing.

Seated delegates? 195. Three-fourths of the seated delegates would be 147. All in favor of considering this particular motion signify by saying aye. Opposed? We shall consider it. We have ten minutes for discussion.

David Saxe, Middle States: I think we’d have to agree that California certainly spent a lot of time looking at this issue and preparing this amendment. I would like to point out some inconsistencies that might exist here. In the first paragraph, the California amendment says that 187 is currently unconstitutional in nature. And then in the second paragraph the statement is read that we will go through the accepted process. If we go through the accepted process, the court will decide whether it is unconstitutional in nature. We cannot move ahead and say something is unconstitutional in nature without having that process being made. Therefore, I would like to propose a friendly amendment that would read:

“WHEREAS the citizens of California have recently approved initiative Proposition 187, which contains provisions that, among other things, include the denial of access to public education for children of illegal immigrants, and

“WHEREAS...” and we continue into the rest of the amendment.

Bob Stahl: Would you accept that change of wording?

David Saxe: I will read it again.

“WHEREAS the citizens of California have recently approved initiative Proposition 187, which contains provisions that, among other things, include the denial of access to public education for children of illegal immigrants, and”

Bob Stahl: So you are asking to strike the words “are currently unconstitutional in nature” and you’re inserting “which, among other things, includes.” Am I correct? Will you accept that change of wording?

All right, the wording has been accepted by the maker of the motion so that is now the current wording that we are to work with.

Jim Leming, Illinois: I’d like to suggest a friendly amendment. I find the statement “by devoting an equivalent of two issues of Social Education, The Social Studies Professional, etc.” ambiguous. Would that mean each journal would be required to have two issues or would it mean two among all of those. I also find that Theory and Research in Social Education, one of the publications of NCSS, is not on this list. I would like to propose the following modification. That, in the third line of “BE IT RESOLVED that NCSS reaffirm...” I would like it to read: “By urging the editors.” You know, editors have certain decisions regarding quality, space, commitments that have been made and so on. “By urging the editors of...”—and then you have the five journals—“in future issues to feature this issue in forthcoming issues of these journals.” Sometimes a single article that’s a powerful article is a much stronger statement than an entire issue full of marginally good articles. And I would suggest that we ought to leave it up to the editors. We ought to instruct the editors to feature this in an issue and leave it up to them to determine when, how, how much and so on.

Another Speaker: A couple of clarifications. One, Proposition 187 is a statute in California. California is one of three states in the United States that guarantees education to all children in its Constitution. Therefore, the preliminary hearing by the judge who stayed the implementation of most of 187 was based upon a violation of the California Constitution as well as the United States Constitution. There is no reason to believe that it will not continue in that vein. All major organizations, all major churches, all major professional groups, have been opposed to this organization. The only people who are arguing that it should be implemented are the people who wrote it. So therefore, I think that this is going to be a moot question because it’s going to be long after I’m retired that this will be cited by the Supreme Court of the United States. I urge you adopt this resolution.

Another speaker: I won’t use the derogatory language that’s been used by some of our colleagues already in terms of discussing this issue, the normal practices of democracy. But I’d like to remind us that making a stand is quite different from taking a stand. And it seems like we’re very good at the rhetoric of democracy and taking action. Can we get a law on race relations? It’s rather harmless if it’s in a magazine and we give it to our pupils, we ask them to read it and discuss because we’re certainly not taking any particular stand. It’s a poor model, I would like to suggest, where we use the rhetoric but we don’t take the actual democratic action as part of our normal practice.

Also, I want to remind you that the members of NCSS who belong to CUFA have already passed the resolution. And it’s going to create, it will create some problems if we’re not meeting together and it may suggest the actual splitting of the organizations, of CUFA from NCSS.

Bob Stahl: We have one minute left in the ten-minute time period.

Another speaker: I cannot answer for the embarrassment that CUFA may suffer here. CUFA never talked with California whatsoever in this thing. And we’re sorry that they did what they did but we think this is a more positive solution.

Another speaker: Excuse me, but CUFA is made up of California members as well and in fact one of the sponsors of the resolution is from California.

Another speaker: I am proposing a friendly amendment which I’ve consulted with Ruben [Zepeda] about. He has already accepted it. It has been typed in. I am going to read it to the group. This would be an insertion after the next to the last paragraph between the next to the last and the last paragraph. I will read it.

“BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS appeal to other professional organizations, both in the United States and internationally to design conference program emphases to be held in California that address issues of human and civil rights specifically to include the topic of Proposition 187.


Bob Stahl: Is this a friendly amendment?

The other speaker: Friendly amendment.

Bob Stahl: Okay. It’s been accepted. The time for debate has expired. We can decide to extend debate or else we can close out. We have a call for the question. All in favor? All right. The motion is to [take this particular resolution off the table]. Do I hear a second? All in favor? Opposed? Ayes have it.

We have ninety-nine votes. It’s now off the table. It is now open for discussion and it is now a motion on the floor.

Resolution 1994-06 was taken off the table, and voted on.



Substitute Resolution for Resolution 1994-06

California Resolution/Proposition 187

WHEREAS the citizens of California have recently approved the initiative Proposition 187, which contains provisions that among other things include denial of access to public education for children of illegal immigrants, and

WHEREAS Proposition 187 will run its course through the accepted process, namely the state and federal court system, and

WHEREAS the National Council for the Social Studies is an organization devoted to the study and advancement of social education in a democratic society, and

WHEREAS the purpose of the NCSS includes promoting the social studies to the best advantage of all students in the classroom and to hold public discussions and programs including its annual conference, and

WHEREAS the 1998 NCSS Annual Conference is currently scheduled for Anaheim, California.

BE IT RESOLVED that the NCSS reaffirm its commitment to educating its members and students on both historical and current event issues on human rights and the violations and attacks on human rights by devoting the equivalent of two issues of Social Education, The Social Studies Professional, and Social Studies and the Young Learner to these issues, and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that NCSS appeal to other professional organizations, both in the United States and internationally, to design conference program emphases to be held in California that address issues of human and civil rights, specifically to include the topic of Proposition 187,

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the NCSS seize the opportunity to use the Anaheim Conference in 1998 to educate the public, hold public forums, vital issue sessions, and to publicize how the social studies classroom provides the best forum for students to come to an informed understanding of vital public issues by strongly recommending to the Program Planning Committee of the Anaheim Convention to adopt a central conference theme which addresses the issues of human and civil rights.



Announcement of Election Results

Steering Committee: Fred Isele and Carol Marquis were elected. Resolutions Committee: Lillie Brown, Deena Fleck Fisher, and Marcel Lewinski were elected. Nominations Committee: Bob Lombard and Sherrelyn Smith were elected. Assignment Committee: For a three-year term, Steve Armstrong, John Larner, and John Papadonis were elected; for a two-year term, Minnie Dyer, Carol Ann Harris, and Ken Mareski were elected; and for a one-year term, Sherry Field, Jackie O’Neill, and Linda Fusco were elected.


The 38th House of Delegates Assembly adjourned.

-- TimDaly - 02 Sep 2005
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