National Council for the Social Studies 42nd Session of the House of Delegates

November 20-21, 1998
The 78th NCSS Annual Conference, Anaheim, California


Session One
Friday, November 20, 1998

Call to Order
Tedd Levy, President: Will the delegates take their seats please?
My name is Tedd Levy. I am the current President of National Council for the Social Studies and I wish to welcome you to this 42nd Annual Meeting of the House of Delegates (HOD). On our platform I would like to introduce Ken Mareski; Linda Fusco, Chair of the Steering Committee; and Dorothy Nottingham, our Parliamentarian. I would also like to introduce the members of the NCSS Board of Directors. If they’re in the audience, could they all stand and remain standing so we can recognize them after we introduce everyone? Christine Allen from Oregon, Steve Armstrong from Connecticut, Linda Black from Texas, Richard Diem from Texas, Dorothy Dobson from Utah, Syd Golston from Arizona, Diane Hart from California, Binta Jallo from New York, Eric Ladue from Arizona, Margaret Laughlin from Wisconsin, Jody Smothers Marcello from Alaska, Mary Teague Mason from Georgia, Denee Mattioli from Tennessee, Murry Nelson from Pennsylvania, Pat Nickell from Georgia, Leonard Piekarski from Missouri, Shelly Singer from Illinois, Mary Ellen Sorensen from Massachusetts, Gary Swalley from Illinois, and Emily Wood from Oklahoma. Thank you. In addition, we have Susan Adler, Vice President, who is down in front and Rick Theisen, President-Elect. Thank you. And furthermore, it is Jody Marcello’s birthday today.
President Tedd Levy then announced that the minutes of the 41st session of the House of Delegates had been approved by the Steering Committee. The agenda for the 42nd House of Delegates was moved, seconded and approved.

Credentials Committee Report
Wendell Brooks, Chair, Credentials Committee: I’m pleased to report that as of this moment there are 179 registered and certified to vote in the House of Delegates as of 3:40 p.m. today, Friday, November 20, 1998. As directed by the Credentials Committee I move the adoption of the credentials report just read.
The motion was seconded and the report was adopted.
Tedd Levy, President: Thank you Wendell. I’d like to introduce the Steering Committee chair, Linda Fusco, and then turn the meeting over to her.
Linda Fusco, Chair, Steering Committee: I am representing others who have worked very hard through the past year. I would like to introduce them and have them stand at this time. Our timekeeper today is Barbara Ameiss Holdsman from Missouri. Ken Mareski from Michigan, affectionately called our tech guy, has added a technology component to these meetings. Chris Stewart has shepherded the credentials and registration process for many years. Also, there are Lynda Wagner from Rhode Island and Bob Lombard from Illinois.
The goal of the Steering Committee is to provide House of Delegates sessions which are meaningful to the individuals, affiliated delegations, and this organization. We have responded to your evaluations and have worked on some areas for this year’s session. The first one, obviously our favorite, is technology. We continue to use technology to clarify and improve your understanding and participation in these sessions. An area where we’ve tried to streamline the process is HOD committee elections. We are providing you with complete state eligibility information and a nomination form which we can use for both information and record keeping.
Some resolutions have been initiated and developed in conjunction with Council issues and topics during the Summer Leadership Conference. And I feel we have had some meaningful resolutions come to the floor as a result of that. Our HOD survey is in its third year. The first year, we affectionately called it the “purple haze document” and we gathered information from you on your needs and concerns. Last year was our second year and we asked you to rank order some items of importance. And this year we’ve taken your favorite choices and will be seeking some implementation ideas from you and making some plans where we can thereby institute some ideas into our organization.
One of the topics of great concern to you folks last year was the election of House of Delegates committees. At this time I’d like to review the eligibility information, which is item number six in the packet, and the nomination form, which is item number five. And folks, on the overheads we’re going to go through some of the corrections that have been made.
Linda Fusco then outlined corrections made to materials distributed to the House of Delegates, and described procedures for making nominations for House of Delegates committees.

State of the Council Addresses
Tedd Levy: The President’s report is in your packet. I will highlight a few things that I think are important to all of us. I do want to say that we all appreciate your efforts, and your involvement, and your leadership, as indicated by your presence here. Your work makes a huge difference in the states and is important for all of us.
In your materials there is a copy of the Long Range Plan which I would like to bring to your attention. It is going to be considered by the Board of Directors next February at a retreat. This will help us to identify our goals and priorities and move efficiently to achieve them. We need to put our resources where our real interests are. We can’t do everything. We hope we can do a few things very well.
The plan will provide our guiding principle for actions over the next year or so. We very much desire your input, your recommendations, and your suggestions. Before this annual House of Delegates meeting is over, please take a look at it and complete a reaction sheet. There will be boxes in which to deposit that paper. We would appreciate your contributions.
Next, I should mention that the Board of Directors, within the six months or so, has established three new committees that are extremely important.
One is the Urban Social Studies Committee, which hopes to examine some of the problems that exist in our urban schools and make recommendations to improve social studies instruction there. If you have ideas, Andy Smith and Binta Jalloh are the chairs, and they would welcome your thoughts or information. Feel free to contact them.
We also have a Millennium Committee, which is made up of the recipients of our Teacher of the Year Awards from the last several years. This committee is to take a look at the ways in which we as social studies educators can celebrate the millennium to improve education and bring attention to social studies and NCSS. It is made up of some highly talented, creative educators, and so we look forward to what they’ll be able to do.
Finally, there is a Surcharge Ad Hoc Committee. This Committee is actually a result of a House of Delegates resolution that was introduced a few years back. Although the resolution was withdrawn, the issue remained and a satisfactory agreement was reached between all the interested parties to have a surcharge for registration fees at our annual conference. Those funds then go back partly to the host state and partly to NCSS for use with other states that don’t hold annual conferences, to assist with council development activities.
This is the first conference and the first year in which we’ll be gaining those funds but they will be used to help all of you from all of the states and you’ll receive additional information as we go along on that. Just keep your eyes on The Social Studies Professional and the other Council publications.
Last of all, I’ll mention two other conferences that you might want to take a look at. There is a proposal form in your materials for a summer conference we’re having for the first time with the National Council for Teachers of English in Washington, DC, July 15-18. We hope to keep it a teacher-focused, practical conference. Submit a proposal to participate in the conference, come to Washington, DC and attend this conference and bring your family.
The other conference that certainly deserves attention is our annual conference next year in Orlando. Rick Theisen, the incoming president, will be responsible for that and we wish him well. We hope to see all of you again next year in Orlando, as we move from Disneyland to Disney World.
No president is here by himself or herself. The President gets lots of support and help from a huge number of other people. And the only problem is that you can’t always thank all of those people. I do want to mention a couple who have been especially kind and helpful to me along the way. In the last couple of weeks, my friends in the Connecticut Council, the President Mary Womack and incoming President Pam Bellmore, have gone out of their way to make life a little bit more pleasant for me and they didn’t have to. Our California members, especially Dick and Judy Kraft, have worked extremely hard and gotten lots of people to do registration and take care of lots of other local arrangements. They have done a spectacular job. And thanks also to Shirley Mead Mezzetta, who has helped a great deal with putting the program together and finding funding sources, in some cases, to make the program possible. And also to Jaime Hitchcock, our Director of Meetings, who has done a superb job, and who has been unflappable in dealing with all of the problems that have come up over the last several weeks and months.
I now want to introduce Martharose Laffey, our Executive Director, who has a report to share with you. Martharose.
Martharose Laffey, Executive Director: Thank you, Tedd. Good afternoon everyone. I want to join my welcome to Tedd’s, welcome you to Anaheim and our annual conference, and express my thanks to Shirley Mead Mezzetta, Program Co-Chair for this meeting, and Dick and Judy Kraft, Co-Chairs of our Local Arrangements Committees. They’ve worked very, very hard to make this meeting a success.
This past year, I’m glad to tell you, has been a very positive and productive year for NCSS. I’ll present some highlights. Financially it was a great year. NCSS revenues exceeded our expenditures by $158,000, and we were able to reduce our deficit by that amount. That improvement leaves us with a remaining deficit of $141,000, which is down from over $1,000,000 five years ago. It is our hope that next year I’ll be able to stand here and tell you that it’s completely eliminated. After that point, we’ll begin to build up a reserve and we’ll be able to enhance and expand our services to our membership.
Contributing to our financial success has been an effective marketing campaign that has increased our membership 13% last year and approximately 40% over the last four years. We are identifying and reaching out to new markets, such as elementary school principals, and these efforts have been bearing fruit. Our Each One Reach One campaign has also been very successful this last year. We’ve obtained 458 new members sponsored by 128 NCSS members. So we thank all of you out there in the state councils who have been responsible for this.
As Tedd mentioned, this past year our Board of Directors developed a three-year long range plan. In July, we began implementation of that plan. Among the major emphases will be enhancing the image of social studies nationally through public relations, expanding our professional development program, including the development of a technology institute, and expanding our publications program.
One of the most exciting things that NCSS did last year and that we will continue to do this coming year is work closely with other groups. This past summer we sponsored an institute jointly with the National Science Teachers Association in Flagstaff, Arizona. This was our first effort of this type and we had a little fear and trepidation. We weren’t sure how well it was going to go. It was a wonderful success. Next year, we will be doing a similar conference, as Tedd mentioned, with the National Council of Teachers of English. The focus will again be on integration in the curriculum.
We participated in another important event involving other groups this past year. In September, we joined with the National Council of Teachers of English, the International Reading Association, and a number of other education and non-education groups to co-sponsor the National Congress for Public Education. The National Congress sought to bring together diverse stakeholders in education to celebrate the successes of public education and to develop ways of working together to strengthen it. Some of you may have heard Tedd’s remarks this morning when he talked about the organized threat to the very existence of public education. This meeting was convened especially to respond to that. The meeting participants developed a set of common principles and will continue their cooperative work, working toward a second conference in the year 2000 and possibly trying to establish the National Congress as a permanent self-sustaining entity. We hope that these kinds of initiatives will strengthen social studies education while also raising its visibility in the education community and among the public at large.
I want to mention just a couple of other activities that we’ve been engaged in. One is our Summer Leadership Institute. It was again very successful this year. And I want to urge all of you from every state to please send at least one representative to our Summer Leadership Institute. It is just a tremendous opportunity to network, to build capacity for your state council, and to meet with your congressional representatives. Also, as Linda was mentioning earlier, we need to develop resolutions for this body. Please come and participate in this very important meeting.
Another thing that I would like to mention is that we have just published a new book that is on sale in our bookstore. It’s by DeAn Krey, titled Children’s Literature in Social Studies: Teaching to the Standards.
Finally, we are participating in a joint project with the Mountain Institute to develop a curriculum for the high school on mountains as a global resource. And the Mountain Institute is exhibiting here at this meeting. They held a clinic yesterday and they are going to have a session also during the conference, so I suggest that if you are interested in this topic, please try to get by their session or stop by their booth.
I’ll turn now to our staffing. We’ve had a wonderful new staff addition to NCSS this year. We hired Janet Lieberman after Rose-Kathryn Young Chaisson, who was our Manager of Awards and Recognitions Programs, left to take up another position. We converted the position to a Directors position. Janet is now the Director of Communications and Government Relations. She came to us from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Janet has an excellent federal relations background, so we think that she’s going to really be able to help us in the public relations and federal relations area, and help all of you as well by strengthening our state legislative network.
As Tedd said, we are successful because we have excellent people on our staff who are working to make NCSS a better organization and to serve the needs of all of our members. And I want to mention some of those now. First, I’d like to mention Tim Daly, my Executive Assistant, who unfortunately is not with us at this conference. His mother died very suddenly on Monday and so he was not able to come to Anaheim. Many of you I know have met Tim over the years, so I just wanted to explain why he is not here. Of course, you all know Susan Griffin. Susan is responsible for many activities within NCSS in the fields of council services and membership marketing. Susan is very important to our success. Her assistant is Mildred McBee. I’m sure all of you know her as well. Timothy McGettigan is our Director of Finance, and he has played a very large role in helping NCSS regain fiscal stability. His assistant is Margaret Black. I mentioned Janet Lieberman, our new Director of Communications and Government Relations. She has a temporary assistant whom I hope you will make an effort to meet during this meeting. His name is Mark Bode. He is a young social studies teacher from Louisiana who is in Washington on a James Madison Fellowship. He is working in our office several hours a week. And this is his first NCSS conference. I hope he’s not too overwhelmed. So you might want to stop by the headquarters office and say hello to him. Of course, you know Jaime Hitchcock. She is responsible for this meeting and our other meetings, and Kim Soehnlein is her assistant. Cassandra Roberts is our Director of Membership Processing and Marcia Gerran is her assistant. Gene Cowan is our Art Director and Webmaster. Many of you are familiar with our website. We constantly get tremendous compliments about it. It’s cutting edge and we’re very proud of it, and Gene is responsible for that. Michael Simpson is our Director of Publications, Jennifer Truran Rothwell is our Associate Editor, and Terri Ackerman is our Managing Editor. So all of those people are here at this meeting, and if you have an opportunity to talk with them and thank them for their work, I would greatly appreciate it. Thank you very much.

Report of the Assignment Committee
Tedd Levy: I would like to call upon Sandy Senior Dauer for the report of the Assignment Committee.
Sandy Senior Dauer: Good afternoon. On behalf of the Assignment Committee, I bring you our selections for NCSS operations committees. This committee has been one of the most congenial, cooperative, creative and humorous committees I’ve ever had the pleasure of chairing. The following Assignment Committee members were present at Thursday’s meeting: Marcia Hurt, vice chair from Kentucky; Kim Kozbial-Hess from Ohio; Jeff Ladd from New Hampshire; Vernell Lewis from Mississippi; and Lynda Wagner, who was our House of Delegates liaison from Rhode Island. I thank these members for their excellent work and wish their continuing success on this committee and others. We reached consensus easily on all topics of discussion.
I present to you and the Board our suggestions for strengthening this committee and increasing the number of applicants. Our first suggestion would be that on every operational committee, there should be at least one teacher practitioner, grades K-12. Our second suggestion would be that applicants should send the committee precisely what it asks for on the form. The form is extremely simple. We do not need your life history and we don’t need the title of every paper you’ve written since high school. It’s a waste of paper, time and mailing costs and human effort in reading through all that. Any applications that arrive without NCSS membership should either be returned to the person who sent in the application or verified by national headquarters before forwarding them to this committee. About a third of the applications don’t even have a membership number on them.
Everyone had done their homework when they came to our committee this year. They familiarized themselves with the candidates, and after discussion, consideration and creative placement, all slots for operational committees were filled. They are as follows:
Academic Freedom, Equity and Equality: Shannon Condon, Ohio; David Olson, Indiana

Archives
Jim Sheehan, Ohio; Marlow Ediger, Missouri
Assessment
James Meadows, Washington; Jane Palmer, Florida
Awards
Linda Fusco, New York; Dwight Holliday, Alabama
Conference
Ronald Helms, Ohio; William Owens, California
Instruction
Kim Kozbial Hess, Ohio; Nancy Gilligan, Kentucky
International
Rex Morrow, Illinois; Janice McArthur, Hawaii
Membership
Matt Tassinari, California; Peggy Ferguson, Florida
Pubic Relations: Cameron White, Texas; Gene Almeida, California
Publications
Antonio Cantu, Indiana; Keith Dauer, Connecticut
Research
Penelope Fritzer, Florida; Brent Heath, California
Teacher Education: Leslie Lee, Florida; Namji Steinemann, New York
Curriculum
Laura Clifford, Kentucky; Mary Connor, California
So while the glow of the conference is still bright and before the reality of life’s responsibilities hits you, I’d like you to consider applying for a committee for next year. You can fill out an application form, you can let Tedd Levy know that you’re interested in an appointment, or you can pass the application to a state council colleague whom you feel is right for the position. Next year, I hope we have a great deal more applications. It was a pleasure serving on this committee. Thank you very much.

Report of the Resolutions Committee
Tedd Levy: I would like to call upon the chair of the Resolutions Committee, Cricket Kidwell.
Cricket Kidwell, Chair, Resolutions Committee: Thank you. Today and yesterday we looked at fifteen different resolutions. The last seven consist of courtesy resolutions and one Constitutional Amendment. Susan Griffin has copies of the resolutions that she will be passing out, so you will have time this evening to look them over and make some comments tomorrow before we have them up for adoption.
Our task was to clarify and refine the resolutions. We adopted three criteria in addition to the outline of our task in the House of Delegates Manual. These three additional criteria were: (1) to ensure that each resolution reflects a national or broad-based constituency focus, (2) to edit for clarity and concise presentation without diminishing the integrity of the resolution, and (3) to further NCSS goals and objectives. We merged resolutions of similar content, mainly those that were developed during the Summer Leadership Institute. The resolutions packets are being passed out as I speak. I’ll go ahead and read the titles of them right now.
Constitutional Amendment 98-01 is an amendment to Section 1.492 of the Constitution. Resolution 98-01 is about Professional Development in NCSS Structure. Resolution 98-02 is about the House of Delegates. Resolution 98-03 is for Inclusion of Presenters Names in NCSS Conference Previews. Resolution 98-04 concerns the Inclusiveness of Social Studies Disciplines. Resolution 98-05 is on the Revaluing of Social Studies. Resolution 98-06 Concerns Widespread Violence in Our Society. Resolution 98-07 is on Access to Public Higher Education. Resolution 98-08 is in Support of a Retrial for Momia Abu Jamaal. I’d like to say on this one, we’ve included this resolution in the packet as we received it. We did not have representation at our hearings from those who submitted this particular resolution for purposes of language clarification and editorial revisions, so we’ve included it in the packet as we received it. Hopefully those who presented this will be here tomorrow to answer questions on that one. Resolution 98-09 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending Tedd Levy. Resolution 98-10 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending Martharose Laffey. Resolution 98-11 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending Jaime Hitchcock, the Program Planning Committee and the Local Arrangements Committee. Resolution 98-12 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending the House Committees. Resolution 98-13 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending the Steering Committee. Resolution 98-14 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending Michael Simpson and Staff. Resolution 98-15 is a Courtesy Resolution Commending the Anaheim Convention Center. Those will be up for discussion tomorrow.
Linda Fusco, Chair, Steering Committee: Two years ago, we asked you for a myriad of information and you were very generous with your ideas regarding NCSS and what we could do to forward our profession. It fell into four categories: issues facing social studies education, areas in which professionals need assistance, ways NCSS could support the social studies, and the four top goals for NCSS as we enter the 21st century. Last year we asked you to rank order each of the three topics in each of these categories. Out of all the eleven items, the largest vote getter was that the way NCSS could support the social studies was to promote more professional development opportunities. To gather information from you about that topic, we are asking you on page number 12 for some ideas about professional development—practical suggestions about how we could collaborate in order to provide opportunities for you. What ways has your own council facilitated opportunities? We know there are fifty states and many different creative ways of doing things. We hope to gather some of these from you.
And then, on a rather personal note, we hope we can find out what was the most meaningful professional development opportunity you recently participated in. It might have been something outside our content area that may be very applicable to the content area. If an opportunity related to multiple intelligences or the dimensions of learning was something that was of great use to you, please tell us that too. Don’t feel you have to limit your responses to purely social studies matters. There will be boxes at the doors for this today and tomorrow, so please find a moment to jot down something and share your ideas with us.

Roll Call of the Affiliates/Nominations for House Committees
Linda Fusco, Steering Committee Chair, conducted the roll call of the affiliates to receive nominations for HOD committees.
Nominations for Assignment for Assignment Committee were: Margo Byerly, Indiana; Susie Fogarty, Florida; Linda Johnson, Michigan.
Nominations for Nomination and Elections Committee were: Edson Lott, Hawaii; Ray Wicks, Missouri.
Nominations for Resolutions Committee: Jerry Graves, Idaho; Ann Kennedy, Oklahoma; Sandy Senior Dauer, Connecticut.
Steering Committee: Nijel Clayton, Kentucky; Pat Guillory, Georgia; Kim Kozbial-Hess, Ohio; Sekufela Lewanila, Mississippi.
Tedd Levy: This concludes the first session of the House of Delegates. There are a few announcements. Registration desk for the delegates tomorrow opens, I believe, at 7:30 a.m. The next meeting is tomorrow, Saturday morning beginning promptly at 8 a.m. and running until 10:15 or earlier. There will be a cash breakfast table that’s set up in the lobby of this hotel each morning. There are restaurants in the lobby of this hotel for breakfast. Nothing will be available in this particular area and we want you to be aware of that. At six o’clock this evening, there is a conference General Session that we wish to bring to your attention. It is the Spirit of America Award. The recipient will be Delores Huerta, who will be speaking at 6:00 in the Grand Ballroom at the Marriott. This is sponsored by the Social Studies School Service. Following the Spirit of America Award presentation is the President’s Reception, which is for the purpose of giving thanks to the California Council people and members of the Local Arrangements and the Planning Committees in particular. That reception will be held at the Marriott Hall Northwest-Northeast at 7:00 this evening, immediately following Mrs. Huerta’s talk. Following that at 8:30 a Welcome Reception hosted by Nystrom in the Marriott Hall South will be held.
The chair will entertain a motion to adjourn. The motion is made by Fred Isele. Second? This meeting stands adjourned until tomorrow morning at 8:00. Thank you.

Session Two
Saturday, November 21, 1998
Recognition of Gold and Silver Star and “Each One Reach One” Participants

Susan Griffin, Director of Council Services and Membership Marketing: Good morning, everyone. I first want to recognize 97 NCSS members who together recruited 458 new NCSS members by personally inviting them to join. This is a 100% increase in the number of members introduced to NCSS this way. Their names are being displayed on the screens now and will also appear in the next issue of The Social Studies Professional. We thank you for your efforts and encourage all delegates to follow their lead and encourage a new professional, colleague, or pre-service teacher to join their professional family, NCSS. All of these sponsors will be eligible for a drawing for two free round trip tickets anywhere in the United States. This year’s winner was Ron Helms, from Ohio. Congratulations, Ron.
Now we wish to acknowledge the hard work and professional contributions of our affiliate councils. The Silver and Gold Star councils are evaluated by rigorous criteria measuring their contributions to the profession and the success of their organizations in providing services to social studies educators. Our Silver Star Councils are: Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Lancaster-Lebanon (PA), Maryland, Michigan, Middle States, Missouri, New York, Niagara Frontier (NY), North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Prince George’s County (MD), Ohio, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin.
Most often, what separates the Silver and Gold councils is the “joint member” increase. The number of joint members must increase by a certain percentage each year and the following groups have done that. The association of Teachers of Social Studies United Federation of Teachers from New York City. Massachusetts Council for the Social Studies. Minnesota Council for the Social Studies and Oklahoma Council for the Social Studies. Please come forward for a photo opportunity. We have people speaking in their native tongues here in the front row. They’re speaking Minnesotan, Massachusetts, Pittsburgh. Congratulations, Gold Stars.
Now this year, I’m very pleased to announce that there are two councils that did such a fantastic job in increasing their joint membership that we have an Outstanding Achievement Award for two of our affiliates. The Middle States Council for the Social Studies increased its joint membership by 135%. So Middle States could you come get your Outstanding Achievement Award? And then the Massachusetts Council for the Social Studies increased its joint membership by 310%. Congratulations on that outstanding achievement. Congratulations and thank you for all your hard work.

Voting for House Committees
Linda Fusco, Steering Committee Chair, introduced Nominees for House Committees. Ballots were distributed and collected.

Candidates Forum
Jackie Abbott, Chair of the Nominations and Elections Committee, introduced the Nominations and Elections Committee and explained the procedures for the Candidates Forum.
Jacqueline Abbott, Chair Nominations Committee: Good morning. The Nominations and Elections Committee represents the membership of NCSS with the following members: myself, Jacqueline Abbott from Bolton, Connecticut; Betty Ballinger from Dallas, Texas; Wendell Brooks from Berkeley, California; Linda Johnson from Detroit, Michigan; Gerald Marker from Bloomington, Indiana; Jacqueline Purdy from Los Angeles, California; Kate Samoska from Chicago, Illinois; Marcie Taylor Thoma from Annapolis Maryland; and our Board Liaison is Mary Teague Mason from Lawrenceville, Georgia. The members of this committee worked diligently throughout the year to seek qualified candidates for the Board of Directors of NCSS. To do so, committee members contact state affiliated councils, leadership in NCSS, House of Delegates members, SIGs, and other sources of possible candidates. Committee members meet in July to compose the slate of candidates for NCSS and recommend these candidates to the Board of Directors. These are the candidates you meet at the annual conference each November. The committee sets strong priorities on geographic distribution, ethnic background, areas of specialization, grade levels, and prior service to NCSS. Committee members also monitor elections and recommend to the Board of Directors action which improve and increase candidate visibility. The House of Delegates plays a strong role in the membership of this committee. In addition, House of Delegates members can impact the committee work through encouraging individuals to complete nominations packets or to consider nominating themselves. As House of Delegates members, they possess the leadership potential and represent the geographic, ethnic, and grade level diversity necessary to represent all members of NCSS. It is with a great deal of pleasure now that I introduce you to the candidates for the slate for 1999. The two vice presidential candidates will have five minutes to present their positions and the others will speak for, actually, we’ve told them one sentence. We’ll see how long those sentences get. The first Vice Presidential candidate is Adrian Davis from Michigan.
Adrian Davis, MI: Good morning. I believe the most significant issue confronting social studies education today is the ability to produce knowledge that will provide a foundation for more complex teaching practice, one that attends simultaneously to students and their diverse needs and to the demand of more challenging social studies standards.
On the eve of the 21st century, we, as social studies educators, are facing a multitude of challenges arising from an increasingly complex, rapidly changing technologically based society. We are being asked to educate the most diverse student body in America’s history to the highest social studies standards. We are being asked to teach students who possess different experiences, different language backgrounds, different cultures, different talents and different needs to master more challenging content and to do so more effectively than ever before. We are expected to not only educate all students, but to ensure that all students learn and to do so with fewer resources.
Teaching diverse learners to master complex skills and more challenging content is more difficult than simple recall or lower order thinking. Enabling students to write and speak effectively while engaging in civic discourse, solve problems while focusing on the inquiry process, and design and conduct group and independent research, requires paying attention to learning, and not just to covering the curriculum. It means engaging students in learning that involves higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversations, connections to the world beyond the classroom, ethical valuing, and integration. It means figuring out how students learn and what they actually understand and what they can do. It means understanding how students develop, and possessing a repertoire of strategies to help them learn.
This daunting task requires a more sophisticated knowledge base and a different development and practice from what we have
experienced. It requires creating learning opportunities that are more powerful than simply reading and talking about new pedagogical ideas. It requires studying, doing and reflecting, collaborating with each other, looking closely at students and their work, and sharing what is seen in that work. This kind of learning cannot occur in college classrooms that are separated from actual practice or in K-12 classrooms that are separated from the knowledge about how to interpret that practice.
I reiterate, the most significant issue confronting social studies education today is the ability to provide scholarly activity that provides for a more complex form of teaching, that attends simultaneously to students and their diverse needs, that satisfies the demand for more challenging social studies standards. I suggest we think more intensely and productively about how research connects policy and practice, how productive change occurs, and what must happen to move schools from where they are to where research suggests they should be.
We know a great deal more than we did about the problems and the dilemmas of change. And we know more about the ways that people develop and use knowledge to support their actions as teachers, as researchers, and as policy makers. The days of assuming that research will be put into practice by disseminating findings from journal articles, report mailings, or even synopses of findings, are long gone. As social studies educators, we should build forms of scholarly activity that span boundaries so that the concerns and the dilemmas of social studies classroom teachers influence the work of social studies researchers and, conversely, the work of social studies researchers should influence the work in schools. In other words, we should engage in forms of scholarly activity that are reality-based. In order to accomplish this, we need not only to have new social studies policies that support and improve social studies teaching, but also more productive ways of influencing the policies that inform and shape schools.
Developing recommendations is easy. Implementing them is hard work. I believe the first step is to recognize how these ideas can be pursued together. The second step is to build upon the substantial work than NCSS has undertaken over the past decade. The recently adopted NCSS Strategic Plan provides us with the tools to create a broader community of knowledge producers and users of social studies, a knowledgeable community that can become more democratic. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott, Chair, Nominations Committee: Another candidate for vice president is James Leming from Illinois.
James Leming, IL: Good morning. I’m Jim Leming. I’m Professor of Education at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. I have now been a member of this organization for 32 years. It seems just like yesterday when I went to my first meeting. One thing that comes with age is, often times, a sense of perspective, and as I’ve watched the ebb and flow of this organization over those 32 years, we’ve definitely had some low points. But it’s my impression that right now we’re on the brink of something great in this organization. It seems that everything that we have been trying to do recently in terms of moving this organization to a greater period of strength and effectiveness is starting to pay off. But in the next five years or so, there are still some challenges remaining for the existing leadership of this organization, people such as you and the board of directors. And I want to talk briefly about what I see as four major challenges facing this organization, things that I think should be put at the top of the agenda.
First, and I think most critical, is membership. We’ve done wonderful things, thanks to the work of the staff and the consulting firm that they’ve hired. Our membership has gone from under 20,000 to over 24,000 now, and all of the signs are indicating we’re gaining in strength. The down side is that less than 15% of the social studies teachers in this country belong to this organization, and when you look at all of the subject matter professional education organizations, we’re the smallest, that is, compared to NCTM, NSTA and NCTE. So there’s still a lot of work to do, and to do that is going to require going beyond what we’ve done this far. Even though what we’ve done this far is fabulous, we need new and more creative ways to carry us forward to get our membership in greater numbers. Because when you have the greater numbers, you’re much stronger as an organization.
A second challenge I see for this organization is to strengthen the professional services that we provide to our members. Membership in NCSS should be more than just a magazine subscription. It should be the opportunity to engage in professional development sponsored by NCSS on a fairly regular basis. I know this is expensive and it’s kind of a chicken and egg thing—the more membership you have, the more money you have, then the more things you can do—but the more professional services you provide, the more attractive the organization is also to new members. So we need to go beyond our outstanding state and regional, national meetings. We need to go beyond our great journals now—Michael Simpson’s done a wonderful job with those—beyond our website, and begin to think outside the box on ways of trying to move our membership to new and higher levels.
A third challenge I see for this organization is public relations. It pains me constantly to read in the newspaper and hear from people around the country—educators and policy makers—negative perceptions of what social studies is about. I know they’re not true. I know those perspectives aren’t true. I know we take our subject matter discipline seriously. But still you see articles in The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post and so on where we’re called a mish-mash of an area, and the like. And I think we really need to begin to think again outside the box and say, “how can we begin to communicate to our constituency, the educational community, and to policy makers and to politicians around the country who we are in a more accurate way that begins to cut down on some of these negative spin items that you see in the paper all of the time.”
And the final challenge I see for the organization is very close to what Adrian just talked about. For some reason, in the last four or five years there’s been almost no research published in social studies education journals that is based on practical considerations, the practical needs of teachers. I think we need to develop a school-based, teacher-based research agenda where we get the researchers in this organization and the teachers sitting down dialoging together, coming up with a significant research question so we can begin to develop a research base that informs practice, improves practice, and helps us make the case for what we do in the public schools. Thank you very much.
Jacqueline Abbott: Thank you, Adrian and Jim. Now for the Board of Directors candidates. There are categories of Elementary, Middle School, Secondary, College/University and Other Professionals. Not all of the candidates are here this morning, so I will only introduce to you those that are here. They’re going to be coming forward and you’ll have a chance to get a good look at them, and then we’re inviting you to join all of our candidates at the NCSS booth in the Exhibit Area this afternoon from 1:30 to 2:30. I hope that you will join us there. For the Elementary category we have Sally Michalko from Wisconsin.
Sally Michalko, WI: I’m a first grade teacher. I’ve been one for 23 years. The students who we have in our classrooms today are going to be the adults in our communities tomorrow, and I believe that it’s through social studies education that we can really impact what kind of adults they will be. I am very honored to have been nominated and hope to have an opportunity to serve on the NCSS Board. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: One middle school candidate is Thomas Gray from New York.
Thomas Gray, NY: Good morning. With changes constantly facing our profession, I feel that my background in document-based instruction and assessment will become an asset to our Board and our organization. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: Our second middle school candidate is Kay Knowles from Virginia. Please come forward, Kay.
Kay Knowles, VA: Good morning. After 10 years of working with social studies education at the state level, I would welcome the opportunity to fight for stronger social studies education and curriculum in our classrooms on all levels, especially the middle school level, and make sure that the teaching of social studies is done by social studies professionals. Thank you very much.
Jacqueline Abbott: In our Secondary category is Robert Nimtz.
Robert Nimtz, IL: Good morning and thank you for volunteering as a delegate to the convention. I’ve been a teacher for 29 years in social studies. If elected, I will feel it is a privilege and an honor to serve you as a Board member. I think that NCSS, along with state and local organizations and teachers, should strive to maintain a social studies curriculum that is a vital vehicle for the education of your students for tomorrow. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: Also for Secondary, Leo Radakovich from Michigan.
Leo Radakovich, MI: I’ve often gone online with NCSS to register for the conference and to communicate with people. On one occasion, I was looking specifically for curriculum so that I could borrow ideas from other states but was unable to find it. There’s so much going on out there we really need to share, so let’s work together to use our website to build curriculum throughout this country. Thanks.
Jacqueline Abbott: Also in the Secondary category as a candidate for the Board of Directors is George Rislov from Texas.
George Rislov, TX: Thank you. I’d just like to lift a phrase from Tedd Levy’s address yesterday and say that my goals for this organization are more and better social studies through building our membership and improving the services that we deliver to our members, and through working with our new Director of Government Relations both at the national and state levels to increase accountability and course offerings required in social studies across this country. Thanks very much.
Jacqueline Abbott: And our College and University candidates—first, Harvey Foyle from Kansas.
Harvey Foyle, KS: After years of struggle, NCSS has finally come up with a definition of the social studies and standards strands for it. These standards and strands are attacked around the country. Kansas is an example. I strongly support our definition and our strands and I urge you to also.
Jacqueline Abbott: And also for College/University, Paul Robinson from Arizona.
Paul Robinson, AZ: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I’m proud to be a candidate for the Board after some 30 years as a member of National Council for the Social Studies. I understand that service on the Board is both a privilege and a responsibility. If you don’t know me, I would appreciate it if you would come up and accost me in the various forums and get to know me. Thank you very much.
Jacqueline Abbott: And in the Other Professional category, first, we have Carol Marquis from California.
Carol Marquis, CA: Good morning. I’m Carol Marquis. I was a classroom teacher at the high school level for 15 years and have been at the World Affairs Council, which is a non-profit educational organization, for the last 10. And I think of all of us who run for the Board of Directors as being bridge people. But I think that those of us who run in that Other Professional category, who find ourselves working in local classrooms—for me that’s primarily in Oakland and San Francisco—and also with government organizations and with businesspeople can help an organization like NCSS and all of you get out that very important message that several people have expressed. We’re at a place where we have a lot of the pieces together and now we need to share those with others. Thank you very much.
Jacqueline Abbott: And our final Other Professional candidate is Gayle Thieman from Oregon. Thank you.
Gayle Thieman, OR: Actually I straddle two states. I live in Washington and am a member of the Washington council and I also work in Oregon. Good morning. As a candidate for the Board of Directors I bring you my energy, enthusiasm, collaborative leadership and proven ability to see the big picture, make reasoned judgments, and get the job done. My skills are based on 20 years experience as a classroom teacher, school administrator, and social studies leader at the state and national level. I’m known in my work on NCSS committees for my inclusive style and the ability to transform ideas into action. Through my research at Portland State, I’m concerned about two disturbing trends. One is the growing number of new teachers who need more preparation in social studies to be effective teachers. Second, in the rush for standards-based assessment, in some areas social studies curriculum is being squeezed out. And I urge the Board of Directors to work diligently in these areas. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: And finally we have two candidates for the Fund for the Advancement of Social Studies Education (FASSE) Board. The first is Brenda Smith from Colorado.
Brenda Smith, CO: Good morning. When they sent me a letter telling me that I’ve been accepted among the nominations, they also told me I had one sentence. Having taught in Oxford, Mississippi, I’m going to make this like William Faulkner and do it as a run on, if that’s okay. Actually, I was a teacher in Oxford, Mississippi, was the state specialist in Mississippi for 4 years and that’s why I have the funny accent coming from Colorado, and right now, I serve as the social studies supervisor for Colorado Springs. I would like the opportunity to work with the FASSE Board because I know how important money is to teachers and I’d appreciate it. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: And finally, Jack Zevin from New York, also a candidate for the FASSE Board.
Jack Zevin, NY: Hello, I’m honored to be here. She said “finally.” Actually, the best thing that ever happened to me in elementary school was a girl showing up whose name was Zimmerman. That was a great thing. Anyway, I’m very happy to be here and I feel honored to run for the FASSE Board and I would like to contribute to NCSS by helping to pull together some of the college interest and the school interests. I was a classroom teacher as well as being a college professor right now. And I have a long-standing interest in developing collaborative grants between schools and colleges. I would like to bring that expertise to NCSS. Thank you.
Jacqueline Abbott: These fine people have put themselves out on the line to serve as candidates. You have a job now and that is to vote. Urge other people to vote. We all understand how important our right to vote is. And when we get about 11% of our members using that right, there’s something that we need to do about that, so would you please help us by voting yourself and asking others to do so. I would repeat once more that these people will be in the Exhibit area at 1:30 but they’re also anxious to meet and greet you at the end of this session, so they will be in that corner over there ready to speak with you if you have a question for them or would like to meet with them some more.
I have one last thing to say: in your packet, you received the 1999 Application Packets. Please take those home, give them to people who would make good candidates for Vice President, for Board of Directors, and for the FASSE Board, and consider putting your name in nomination as well. One of the most difficult tasks that the Nominations and Elections Committee has is to identify qualified candidates. I think the committee would be delighted if they had hundreds of applications flowing in. Their job would be more difficult in one sense, but much easier in another. So please urge your fellow NCSS members to apply and consider it yourself. Thank you very much.
Tedd Levy: Thank you Jackie. I do want to emphasize Jackie’s last comments about finding and encouraging good people to run. You here are the leadership of this organization and you here should seriously consider that privilege and responsibility of running for office yourselves as well as finding other people.
We are about to review and decide on several resolutions that have been introduced and are in your materials. There are a few things that I wish to remind or inform you about. First, according to your rules and regulations and our policy on the Board, the House may adopt resolutions, but such resolutions are advisory in nature and, because of the Articles of Incorporation for NCSS, these resolutions may not bind nor become the official action of NCSS unless the Board of Directors concurs. The Board of Directors is the legal body for NCSS.

Presentation and Actions on Resolutions
Cricket Kidwell, Chair of the Resolutions Committee, introduced members of the committee and presented resolutions.
Cricket Kidwell, Chair, Resolutions Committee: I’m Cricket Kidwell, Chair of the House of Delegates Resolutions Committee. Yesterday, packets were passed out with the full text of each resolution. We’ll go through them one by one. But I have additional packets for those of you who did not receive them yesterday. This morning I made some minor grammatical changes.
I’d like to introduce my Resolutions Committee. Serving as Vice Chairperson, Dean Cantu from Indiana, if you would stand please. By the way, this is a fairly labor-intensive committee and very time-intensive. Ken Mareski, representing the Steering Committee from Michigan; Susan Griffin of the NCSS staff; and we also had assistance from Linda Fusco, Chairperson of the Steering Committee.
Over the past two days, we were charged with the task of clarifying and refining 15 resolutions. Our role as the Resolutions Committee is to present these resolutions to you, not to take a position. In looking at these resolutions, our adopted criteria included: (1) to insure that each resolution provides the greatest applicability that reflects national or broad based constituency focus; (2) to edit for clarity and concise presentation without diminishing the integrity of the resolution; and (3) to further NCSS goals and objectives. We also merged resolutions of similar or identical content, particularly those that were developed during the Summer Leadership Institute. And I will mention again that Resolution 98-08 is presented in this packet to you as it was presented to us. We did not have representation by the authorship of this resolution at our hearings. So we did not feel we were able to make editorial revisions or language clarification changes. I’ll now present to you the 15 resolutions, the last 7 of which are courtesy resolutions and one Constitutional Amendment.

Constitutional Amendment
  1. 492 In case of vacancy in the office of the president, the president-elect shall become president, filling the remainder of the vacant term plus the term for which the president-elect was elected. In case of vacancy in the office of the president-elect, where there is a president in office, the vice president shall fulfill the remaining duties of the president-elect and move into the office of president the following year. In case of vacancy in the office of vice president, the president shall appoint a member of the current board to serve as acting vice president, fulfilling all duties for the remainder of the term. The Nominations and Elections Committee shall then solicit nominations for the office of vice president and president-elect for the following year, maintaining the normal election schedule. The acting vice president is not eligible to succeed to the office of president-elect or president while serving in the position of acting vice president.
    Passed.

    Resolution 98-01: Professional Development - NCSS Structure
    Submitted by the Florida Council for the Social Studies, Massachusetts Council for the Social Studies, Middle State Council for the Social Studies, Association of Teachers of Social Studies/United Federation of Teachers/ (ATSS/UFT) New York, Pennsylvania Council for the Social Studies, Wisconsin Council for the Social Studies, New York State Council for the Social Studies
    WHEREAS the House of Delegates survey at the 1997 national conference identified the promotion of professional development opportunities as the chief way in which NCSS can support the social studies, and
    WHEREAS NCSS-affiliated state councils for social studies are initiating and implementing professional development opportunities for social studies professionals,
    BE IT RESOLVED that NCSS establish a financial structure and guidelines to support affiliated state councils’ efforts for professional development.
    Passed.

    Resolution 98-02: House of Delegates
    Submitted by the Florida Council for the Social Studies, Middle States Council for the Social Studies
    WHEREAS democracy should be a hallmark of all social studies education, and
    WHEREAS our country is founded upon a republican system of government, and
    WHEREAS NCSS is an organization whose mission is to foster the principles and institutions of democracy,
    BE IT RESOLVED that the National Council for the Social Studies House of Delegates create a taskforce to draft amendments to the NCSS Constitution which will make the House of Delegates a truly deliberative and policy-making body modeled upon our republican system of government.
    Discussion was offered on both sides of the resolution. Defeated.

98-03
Inclusion of Presenters Names In NCSS Conference Previews
Submitted by the New York State Council for the Social Studies
WHEREAS presenters, at their own expense, give of their time and effort to advance the program at the annual NCSS conference, and
WHEREAS many presenters need valid proof for their school districts that they are in the program of the annual NCSS conference, and
WHEREAS it is common courtesy and traditional practice in other conferences across the country to include the presenters names in both the preview and conference booklet,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT NCSS insert in its annual conference program preview and conference booklet the name of individual presenters at the conference.
A number of delegates spoke both in favor and against the resolution. Passed

98-04
Inclusiveness of Social Studies Disciplines
Submitted by the Florida Council for the Social Studies, Indiana Council for the Social Studies, Massachusetts Council for the Social Studies, Middle States Council for the Social Studies, New York State Council for the Social Studies, Association of Teachers of Social Studies/United Federation of Teachers (ATSS/UFT) New York, Wisconsin Council for the Social Studies
WHEREAS the Behavioral Sciences, i.e., psychology, sociology and anthropology, are an important part of social studies education, and
WHEREAS neglect of these disciplines removes important content that contributes to citizenship education,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT National Council for the Social Studies takes a strong stand supporting the inclusion of all the social sciences i.e., history, geography, economics, government, psychology, sociology, and anthropology in the social studies curriculum as well as in the social studies standards and assessment movement.
Discussion ensued with delegates favoring the most inclusive language. There was an amendment to substitute “political science” for “government,” and that amendment passed. The resolution passed as amended.

98-05
Revaluing Of Social Studies
Submitted by the New York State Council for the Social Studies, Association of Teachers of Social Studies/United Federation of Teacher (ATSS/UFT) New York, Connecticut Council for the Social Studies, Florida Council for the Social Studies, Middle States Council for the Social Studies, Pennsylvania Council for the Social Studies, Wisconsin Council for the Social Studies, and North Carolina Council for the Social Studies
WHEREAS we face the devaluing of social studies subjects, and
WHEREAS crises in social studies areas are being addressed in a variety of states, and
WHEREAS there is a need to focus on positive outcomes and results, and
WHEREAS we have a need to develop outstanding professional development opportunities, and
WHEREAS state affiliates need to emphasize dialogue and collaboration in order to revalue social studies,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT National Council for the Social Studies create a taskforce to investigate the feasibility of disseminating to states information on the following: (a) models of best practices in social studies programs; (b) models of best practices in affiliate councils; (c) models of best practices of staff development; and (d) models of effective collaboration and networking amongst state and local organizers to improve social studies programs.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT a plan of action to revalue social studies be presented to the 1999 delegate assembly and disseminated to all NCSS affiliate organizations.
The resolution was amended changing “organizers” to “councils” in section (d) in the first “Be It Resolved.” Passed as amended.

98-06
Resolution Concerning Widespread Violence in Our Society
Submitted by the Connecticut Council for the Social Studies
WHEREAS educational communities are increasingly faced with issues of safety, and
WHEREAS our society seems to be creating an atmosphere in which violence is accepted, and
WHEREAS social studies educators are committed to creating safe, positive learning environments conducive to our primary purpose of helping young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse democratic society in an interdependent world,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT National Council for the Social Studies advocate the teaching of conflict resolution and character-building skills as a positive means of solving conflicts and finding alternatives to violence in our world and society.
Passed unanimously.

Resolution 98-07: Resolution On Access To Public Higher Education
Submitted by Rich Gibson, Detroit, MI; E. Wayne Ross, Binghamton, NY; Jack Nelson, Carlsbad, CA; Valerie Pang, San Diego, CA.
WHEREAS NCSS is committed to the education of all members of society and to the rights of all people to equal access to higher education regardless of race, religion, ethnicity, gender or socioeconomic and disability status, and
WHEREAS NCSS opposes the limitation of higher education access for working class and or ethnic minority students, e.g., the recent shutting of the door to access at City University of New York, the University of California, and the entire public educational system of Texas, and
WHEREAS the denial of access to higher education, while rationalized by the notion of meritocracy, makes higher education a privilege of those with better incomes and increases the rigidity of the U.S. class structure, and
WHEREAS working class and minority students often do not receive adequate preparation for higher education and are in need of remediation when they enter college in order to enhance their chances of success and ensure their continuing at an institution of higher education, and
WHEREAS the proposed elimination of college level remediation is accompanied by the out-sourcing of skills provision to private profit-making institutions and not under the supervision of institutional staff and faculty at locations where such students will be separated from the rest of the college community, and
WHEREAS cutbacks in access to public higher education often target students of color first and are explicitly or implicitly accompanied by appeals to racism, and
WHEREAS politicians and business people, rather than educators, are increasingly setting policy for institutions of higher education,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT NCSS opposes hasty and ill-considered attempts to eliminate remedial instruction from the curricula of two and four-year colleges, e.g. City University of New York, and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT NCSS condemns the politicization of higher education institutions and their governance and all attempts by politicians to usurp the power to set educational policy.
The resolution was amended by eliminating the first parentheses located in the first “Whereas” and striking the “City University of New York” in the first “Be It Resolved.” The amendment passed. There was a question raised concerning the legitimacy of a resolution put forth by an entity other than an affiliate council or committee. The resolution was defeated.

Resolution 98-08: Resolution In Support Of A Retrial For Mumia Abu Jamaal
Submitted by E. Wayne Ross, Binghamton, NY; Stephen C. Fleury, Syracuse, NY; Rich Gibson, Detroit, MI; Perry Marker, Rohnert Park, CA; Jack Nelson, Carlsbad, CA
WHEREAS Mumia Abu Jamaal, an award winning radio journalist, former Black Panther Party member, community activist who campaigned against police brutality in Philadelphia in support of MOVE, an African American organization whose members were bombed by the Philadelphia Police Department, currently sits on death row in the state of Pennsylvania, and
WHEREAS Mr. Abu Jamaal was arrested for the murder of Philadelphia police Officer Daniel Faulkner after he intervened to stop the beating of Mr. Jamaal’s brother by Officer Faulkner and was himself shot and nearly killed during this confrontation, and
WHEREAS supporters of Mr. Abu Jamaal have long claimed racial and political bias and Mr. Abu Jamaal’s original trial and sentencing, and
WHEREAS lawyers filing appeals have unearthed new evidence in support of those claims, such as: that almost all potential African American jurors were unconstitutionally excluded from the original jury; that prosecution witnesses who changed their original statements to agree with the police version have since come forward to say they were coerced, threatened, or bribed; that ballistics evidence that is contradictory to the caliber of the bullet that killed Officer Faulkner exists; and that there is reason to believe Mr. Abu Jamaal’s confession was invented by the police two months after it supposedly occurred, and
WHEREAS apart from Mr. Abu Jamaal’s supporters, neutral jurists and human rights observers have stated that the proceedings were so tainted by police and judicial misconduct that whether or not Mr. Abu Jamaal actually committed the murder is impossible to determine without a new trial, and
WHEREAS Mr. Abu Jamaal’s appeal is presently awaiting a decision by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court which could order a new trial, could free Mr. Abu Jamaal, or could move quickly toward execution, and
WHEREAS social studies educators are well acquainted with the history of police, judicial and government harassment, violence and murder that have been visited upon many of the people who have been at the forefront of the struggle against oppression in our society including the Haymarket Martyrs, the Ludlow Massacre, Joe Hill, Big Bill Haywood, Saccho and Vanzetti, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and many other individuals and groups, and
WHEREAS social studies educators routinely teach school children about the rights, responsibilities, and protections afforded citizens of the United States of America through its Constitution, and
WHEREAS we cannot let the human rights of others be trampled without undermining our own rights, and
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED THAT National Council for the Social Studies calls for a retrial of Mr. Abu Jamaal in which all available evidence will be considered in an effort to reach a judgment that is fair and just, and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT National Council for the Social Studies shall announce to its members and the press its adoption of this resolution, shall encourage and support the adoption of this resolution by any local, state, regional, national, or international educational organizations to which it belongs or is affiliated, and shall take any other action that it deems necessary to secure a retrial for Mr. Abu Jamaal.
The resolution prompted much discussion. Again, the issue was raised concerning the legitimacy of a resolution from a group of members rather than an affiliate or NCSS committee. The chair ruled that its legitimacy was supported by the HOD Manual governing resolutions. The chair’s ruling was challenged, a vote was taken, and the chair’s decision was upheld. The resolution was defeated unanimously.

Cricket Kidwell, Chair, Resolutions Committee: We did receive one courtesy resolution separate from the others, the Connecticut Council for the Social Studies, and I will read that one separately.

98-09
Resolution Commending Tedd Levy
Connecticut Council for the Social Studies
WHEREAS Tedd Levy, President of National Council for the Social Studies 1998-99 has taken leadership roles in NCSS and its affiliated council in Connecticut, and
WHEREAS Tedd Levy has provided exemplary leadership in the social studies profession in his own state of Connecticut as well as across the nation, and
WHEREAS Tedd Levy has spoken with resolve on issues facing NCSS and his belief that it is our task to educate competent and caring thinkers who see those who are different or those who are at a distance not as a threat but as an opportunity to expand their own minds and explore and understand humanity, their own and that of others,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT Tedd Levy receive our sincere thanks and appreciation for this service and dedication to the promotion of the social studies.
Passed unanimously by standing ovation.

Tedd Levy: Thank you all.
Cricket Kidwell: The last six courtesy resolutions will be taken as a block:

98-10
Resolution Commending Martharose Laffey
98-11
Courtesy Resolution Commending Jaime Hitchcock, the Program Planning Committee and the Local Arrangements Committee
98-12
Courtesy Resolution Commending House Committees
98-13
Courtesy Resolution Commending the Steering Committee
98-14
Courtesy Resolution Commending Michael Simpson and Staff
98-15
Courtesy Resolution Commending the Anaheim Convention Center
Passed.

Tedd Levy: Does anybody wish to speak to any of these resolutions? All those in favor of all of these courtesy resolutions please say aye. Opposed no. All of the courtesy resolutions have been passed. Thank you very much, Cricket, for a fine job.
There are a few announcements including, first of all, the results of the elections that have been held which will be done by Linda.
Linda Fusco, Chair of the Steering Committee: Well it was a close race but we would like to announce that the Assignment Committee’s new members are: Margo Byerly, Indiana; Suzie Fogerty, Florida; and Linda Johnson, Michigan. Resolutions Committee: Jerry Graves, Idaho; Ann Kennedy, Oklahoma; Sandy Senior Dauer, Connecticut. The Steering Committee: two new members are Pat Guillory from Georgia and Kim Kozbial Hess from Ohio. Nominations and Elections: Edson Lott and Ray Wicks. Thank you.
Tedd Levy: There are a few other announcements. We wish to remind new committee members to report to the front of this room at the conclusion of this meeting. You have materials from the FASSE Board encouraging you to make contributions and to encourage others to do so as well. You also have in your packet a Long Range Plan reaction sheet. If you have not done so yet, please complete that as we talk and sit here and leave that at the door on your way out as well as the House of Delegates Survey. And you have a National Council of Teachers of English/NCSS Proposal Form. If you’re interested, please fill that out or pass that along. You have a House of Delegates Evaluation Form. Please complete that and leave that also before you depart.
For your information, your next meeting will be in Orlando, Florida, with President-Elect Rick Theisen who’s down here from Minnesota. And the dates are November 19-21, 1999. In the year 2000, you will be in San Antonio, 2001 in Washington, DC, 2002 in Phoenix, 2003 in Chicago, and beyond that is yet to be decided. And the International Conference is in the year 2000 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. I hope to see many of you there as well. There are placards and flags on your table, and when you leave, we expect they will remain on the table. We wish to thank Susan Griffin again for her outstanding service, and Linda Fusco for her outstanding organization of this meeting. This house stands adjourned.

-- TimDaly - 02 Sep 2005
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